Placeholder Content Image

Walking or running: for the same distance, which consumes more energy?

<div class="theconversation-article-body"><em><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/clement-lemineur-1529211">Clément Lemineur</a>, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/universite-cote-dazur-2917">Université Côte d’Azur</a>; <a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/clement-naveilhan-1495411">Clément Naveilhan</a>, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/universite-cote-dazur-2917">Université Côte d’Azur</a>, and <a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/francois-dernoncourt-1495410">François Dernoncourt</a>, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/universite-cote-dazur-2917">Université Côte d’Azur</a></em></p> <p>It’s Monday morning, the alarm goes off and it’s already 7:30 a.m. – and you’re 30 minutes late. Normally you need 45 minutes to walk the 3 kilometres to work, but this morning you’ll be running for 20 minutes. Yes, but by lunchtime you’re feeling more tired and you have the impression that you’ve expended more energy than usual on the trip. Yet you’ve covered the same distance as on the other days. How can this be?</p> <p>The calorie expenditure associated with any activity is called the “metabolic cost”, and corresponds to the energy consumed by our organs to cover a given distance. This metabolic cost can be determined by analysing the oxygen our bodies consume and the carbon dioxide they produce, we can estimate the amount of energy expended, and thus the metabolic cost. It was using this method that <a href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/692303/">researchers had already answered our question back in the 1970s</a>.</p> <p>Perhaps not surprisingly, running consumes more energy than walking for the same distance covered. But why?</p> <h2>Energy lost when running</h2> <p>Imagine you’re watching someone running. Now look closely at the vertical movement (up and down) of their pelvis and head. As you can see from the diagram below, when we run, the distance that our body moves up and down is greater than when we walk. To produce this vertical movement, the muscles of the lower limbs have to generate more force, and that consumes more energy, yet doesn’t bring us any closer to our destination. So when running, part of the energy expended is used to move our bodies <a href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16029949/">upward rather than forward</a>. The energy needed to cover those 3 km is therefore higher for running than for walking.</p> <figure class="align-center zoomable"><a href="https://images.theconversation.com/files/602769/original/file-20240625-18-xilv63.png?ixlib=rb-4.1.0&amp;q=45&amp;auto=format&amp;w=1000&amp;fit=clip"><img src="https://images.theconversation.com/files/602769/original/file-20240625-18-xilv63.png?ixlib=rb-4.1.0&amp;q=45&amp;auto=format&amp;w=754&amp;fit=clip" sizes="(min-width: 1466px) 754px, (max-width: 599px) 100vw, (min-width: 600px) 600px, 237px" srcset="https://images.theconversation.com/files/602769/original/file-20240625-18-xilv63.png?ixlib=rb-4.1.0&amp;q=45&amp;auto=format&amp;w=600&amp;h=287&amp;fit=crop&amp;dpr=1 600w, https://images.theconversation.com/files/602769/original/file-20240625-18-xilv63.png?ixlib=rb-4.1.0&amp;q=30&amp;auto=format&amp;w=600&amp;h=287&amp;fit=crop&amp;dpr=2 1200w, https://images.theconversation.com/files/602769/original/file-20240625-18-xilv63.png?ixlib=rb-4.1.0&amp;q=15&amp;auto=format&amp;w=600&amp;h=287&amp;fit=crop&amp;dpr=3 1800w, https://images.theconversation.com/files/602769/original/file-20240625-18-xilv63.png?ixlib=rb-4.1.0&amp;q=45&amp;auto=format&amp;w=754&amp;h=361&amp;fit=crop&amp;dpr=1 754w, https://images.theconversation.com/files/602769/original/file-20240625-18-xilv63.png?ixlib=rb-4.1.0&amp;q=30&amp;auto=format&amp;w=754&amp;h=361&amp;fit=crop&amp;dpr=2 1508w, https://images.theconversation.com/files/602769/original/file-20240625-18-xilv63.png?ixlib=rb-4.1.0&amp;q=15&amp;auto=format&amp;w=754&amp;h=361&amp;fit=crop&amp;dpr=3 2262w" alt="Illustration of the oscillations of running and walking" /></a><figcaption><span class="caption">Running involves much greater vertical oscillation of the centre of mass than walking. This is the main reason why running consumes more energy than walking for the same distance covered.</span> <span class="attribution"><span class="source">François Dernoncourt</span>, <span class="license">Fourni par l'auteur</span></span></figcaption></figure> <p>This difference between walking and running is not confined to what happens during the activity itself. In fact, each physical exercise causes a delayed expenditure of energy, which is added to the expenditure during the activity.</p> <p>Taking this into account, it’s once again running that uses more energy than walking. Immediately after running your 3 km, the increased energy consumption (compared with resting) lasts for several minutes, mainly because of the increase in body temperature and the replenishment of energy reserves. This additional expenditure after running is <a href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22446673/">more than twice that observed after walking</a>, due to the difference in intensity between the two exercises.</p> <h2>It all depends on speed</h2> <p>Running therefore involves a higher calorie expenditure than walking for the same distance covered. But this is on condition that the walking speed considered is “normal” (around 5 km/h). So, if we walk very slowly, it will take us so long to cover the 3 km that the calorie expenditure will be greater in the end. This is because the body expends a certain amount of energy per unit of time no matter what, regardless of the activity performed (known as the “basal metabolic rate”).</p> <p>The same applies if the walking speed is very fast (<a href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29925582/">more than 8 km/h</a>): running is more energy-efficient. Here, the coordination required to walk at such a speed means that we need to activate our muscles more, without being able to take advantage of the elasticity of our tendons, as is the case with running.</p> <p>Moreover, we have a very precise intuitive perception of the energy efficiency of a particular style of movement. If we’re on a treadmill whose speed gradually increases, the point at which we spontaneously switch from walking to running coincides with the <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S096663622100120X">moment when it would become more energy-consuming to walk than to run</a>.</p> <figure class="align-center zoomable"><a href="https://images.theconversation.com/files/604700/original/file-20240703-17-4dlrj.jpg?ixlib=rb-4.1.0&amp;q=45&amp;auto=format&amp;w=1000&amp;fit=clip"><img src="https://images.theconversation.com/files/604700/original/file-20240703-17-4dlrj.jpg?ixlib=rb-4.1.0&amp;q=45&amp;auto=format&amp;w=754&amp;fit=clip" sizes="(min-width: 1466px) 754px, (max-width: 599px) 100vw, (min-width: 600px) 600px, 237px" srcset="https://images.theconversation.com/files/604700/original/file-20240703-17-4dlrj.jpg?ixlib=rb-4.1.0&amp;q=45&amp;auto=format&amp;w=600&amp;h=395&amp;fit=crop&amp;dpr=1 600w, https://images.theconversation.com/files/604700/original/file-20240703-17-4dlrj.jpg?ixlib=rb-4.1.0&amp;q=30&amp;auto=format&amp;w=600&amp;h=395&amp;fit=crop&amp;dpr=2 1200w, https://images.theconversation.com/files/604700/original/file-20240703-17-4dlrj.jpg?ixlib=rb-4.1.0&amp;q=15&amp;auto=format&amp;w=600&amp;h=395&amp;fit=crop&amp;dpr=3 1800w, https://images.theconversation.com/files/604700/original/file-20240703-17-4dlrj.jpg?ixlib=rb-4.1.0&amp;q=45&amp;auto=format&amp;w=754&amp;h=497&amp;fit=crop&amp;dpr=1 754w, https://images.theconversation.com/files/604700/original/file-20240703-17-4dlrj.jpg?ixlib=rb-4.1.0&amp;q=30&amp;auto=format&amp;w=754&amp;h=497&amp;fit=crop&amp;dpr=2 1508w, https://images.theconversation.com/files/604700/original/file-20240703-17-4dlrj.jpg?ixlib=rb-4.1.0&amp;q=15&amp;auto=format&amp;w=754&amp;h=497&amp;fit=crop&amp;dpr=3 2262w" alt="" /></a><figcaption><span class="caption">Modelling of metabolic cost (kilocalories expended per kilogram per kilometre covered) as a function of speed (kilometres per hour) for walking and running. The curves cross at a certain speed (purple line; around 8 km/h): this means that above this speed, walking becomes more energy-intensive than running. It’s at around this threshold speed that people spontaneously switch from walking to running.</span> <span class="attribution"><span class="source">François Dernoncourt, Adapted from Summerside et al</span>, <span class="license">Fourni par l'auteur</span></span></figcaption></figure> <p>In conclusion, because of greater oscillation of the centre of mass and increased energy expenditure after exercise, running to work is more energy-intensive than covering the same distance by walking. But remember, whether you choose to walk or run to work, the most important thing is that you’re already saving energy!<!-- Below is The Conversation's page counter tag. Please DO NOT REMOVE. --><img style="border: none !important; box-shadow: none !important; margin: 0 !important; max-height: 1px !important; max-width: 1px !important; min-height: 1px !important; min-width: 1px !important; opacity: 0 !important; outline: none !important; padding: 0 !important;" src="https://counter.theconversation.com/content/233943/count.gif?distributor=republish-lightbox-basic" alt="The Conversation" width="1" height="1" /><!-- End of code. If you don't see any code above, please get new code from the Advanced tab after you click the republish button. The page counter does not collect any personal data. More info: https://theconversation.com/republishing-guidelines --></p> <p><em><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/clement-lemineur-1529211">Clément Lemineur</a>, Doctorant en Sciences du Mouvement Humain, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/universite-cote-dazur-2917">Université Côte d’Azur</a>; <a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/clement-naveilhan-1495411">Clément Naveilhan</a>, Doctorant en Sciences du Mouvement Humain, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/universite-cote-dazur-2917">Université Côte d’Azur</a>, and <a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/francois-dernoncourt-1495410">François Dernoncourt</a>, Doctorant en Sciences du Mouvement Humain, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/universite-cote-dazur-2917">Université Côte d’Azur</a></em></p> <p><em>Image credits: Shutterstock </em></p> <p><em>This article is republished from <a href="https://theconversation.com">The Conversation</a> under a Creative Commons license. Read the <a href="https://theconversation.com/walking-or-running-for-the-same-distance-which-consumes-more-energy-233943">original article</a>.</em></p> </div>

Body

Placeholder Content Image

Daughter of former All Black charged over alleged hit and run death

<p>The daughter of former New Zealand All Black has been charged over an alleged hit and run that left a 65-year-old man dead in Auckland. </p> <p>Helena Jade Cribb, the daughter of Ron Cribb, was charged earlier this year after Jason Collins' body was found by a member of the public on O'Brien Rd, Lucas Heights in the early hours of December 7. </p> <p>The 22-year-old previously had a name suppression, which has now lapsed. </p> <p>Earlier this year, Detective Sergeant Ben Bergin said the driver allegedly involved had been identified not long after Collins' death. </p> <p>"A thorough investigation has been underway into the tragic circumstances by the Waitematā CIB and we have reached a point where charges have been filed," Bergin said.</p> <p>Collins has been remembered as a devoted father, husband and friend. </p> <p>"The tragic loss of Jason has left an unfillable void in our hearts," a statement on behalf of his family read. </p> <p>"...his absence is a constant ache, a relentless reminder of what we've lost.</p> <p>"Taken from us too soon, his departure is a profound and senseless blow that we struggle to comprehend.</p> <p>"Each day is a battle against the overwhelming emptiness left in his wake.</p> <p>"We ask for privacy at this time as we continue to grieve."</p> <p>The 22-year-old reportedly faces a charge of operating a vehicle carelessly, causing death while under the influence of alcohol or drugs. </p> <p>She is set to reappear in court in September. </p> <p><em>Image: NZ Police</em></p> <p> </p>

Legal

Placeholder Content Image

Tiny reason for huge commitment: Grandad to run from Perth to Sydney

<p>John Harb admits he’s never been much of a runner. But that’s about to change, when the 62-year-old grandad and yoga enthusiast runs from Perth to Sydney for his granddaughter Luna.</p> <p>Little Luna came into the world three months early at Sydney's Royal Hospital for Women, in February, and at just 500 grams, she was the same weight as a tub of butter. </p> <p>The experience left John in awe, not only of his baby granddaughter, but of the magic that happens in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) at the hospital.</p> <p>“To watch Luna over the past three months, and witness her strength and her fighting spirit has been incredible,” said John. </p> <p>“Seeing my daughter Michelle and her husband Nick, and all the other parents and premature babies in the ward going through such a difficult time but being so well supported by the doctors and nurses made me want to do something to help,” he said.</p> <p>“When I discovered 80 percent of the equipment in the unit, including the equipment that kept Luna alive, was purchased through donations, I wanted to do something big.”</p> <p>Taking inspiration from Nedd Brockman, John has decided to run across the country with the goal of raising one-million-dollars to support the NICU.</p> <p>Currently training by running 15 kilometres a day, John has sourced advice from a range of experts including Brockman himself, who made a special visit to the NICU after hearing of John’s plans.</p> <p>He plans to commence his run at Cottesloe Beach on 1 October and arrive at The Royal Hospital for Women, Randwick in early December.</p> <p>Royal Hospital for Women Foundation General Manager Elise Jennings said John’s commitment will allow the hospital to purchase more lifesaving equipment on their wish list, like a new ultrasound machine for high risk pregnancies. </p> <p>“I have come to know John through the time he spent in the NICU supporting Michelle and Luna and I know how passionate he is about making a difference for those who come after Luna and we are incredibly grateful to John for his commitment. Running from Perth to Sydney is a huge undertaking, especially for a grandfather in his 60s with no previous long distance running experience, but if anyone can do it, he can.”</p> <p> “We are thrilled that John is announcing his run as part of our major annual fundraiser, Heart for Her, in recognition not only of the extraordinary care received by Michelle and Luna, but for all of the babies and families who come through our doors.”</p> <p>“For three decades now, The Royal Hospital for Women Foundation has funded the best medical equipment, innovative research, people and programs but we rely on the generosity of our donors to do this.” </p> <p>Donations can be made <a title="https://www.royalwomen.org.au/fundraisers/johnharb" href="https://www.royalwomen.org.au/fundraisers/johnharb" data-outlook-id="eed61181-8705-430d-a478-3f5f14e8b008">https://www.royalwomen.org.au/fundraisers/johnharb</a></p> <p><em>Image credits: Supplied</em></p>

Family & Pets

Placeholder Content Image

E-scooter hit and run victim embraced by Magpies club

<p>In a heartwarming display of community and sportsmanship, the Collingwood AFL club has come together to support a cherished fan, 81-year-old Jessie Hatch, after a distressing e-scooter incident following the Collingwood-Carlton game two weeks ago.</p> <p>Jessie, a lifelong devotee of the Magpies, was leaving the Melbourne Cricket Ground when she was <a href="https://www.oversixty.com.au/finance/legal/such-a-cowardly-thing-police-hunt-after-e-scooter-hit-and-run-on-81-year-old-woman" target="_blank" rel="noopener">struck by an e-scooter</a> in what she described from the hospital afterwards as "such a cowardly thing".</p> <p>In a touching twist, it was a member of the rival Carlton cheer squad who first rushed to her aid. Reflecting on the incident, Jessie <a href="https://www.9news.com.au/national/great-grandmother-embraced-by-beloved-magpies-after-ugly-escooter-incident/73445ba6-69f0-4954-8984-cc3109e3de30" target="_blank" rel="noopener">recounted to 9News</a>, "Apparently I passed out and they couldn't get a pulse or a heartbeat and I came around finally with someone screaming my name and telling me to wake up and also my son was so distressed."</p> <p>Jessie's son, Greg, expressed his confidence in his mother’s resilience. "She was born in Carlton - she won't admit that - but she was raised in Collingwood . . . So they build them a bit different when they're raised in Collingwood. Tougher than any of us."</p> <p>Despite her injuries, Jessie’s spirit remains unbroken. Dressed proudly in her Magpies jumper, she recently attended a training session where she was warmly welcomed and embraced by the players. </p> <p>The club’s support has been a balm for Jessie. "This is just amazing," she beamed. True to her unwavering dedication, she declared, "I'm going to the game on Saturday. That won't keep me away."</p> <p>In an inspiring gesture of goodwill, Jessie also plans to set aside traditional rivalries to visit Princes Park and thank the Blues fan who helped her. </p> <p>Meanwhile, police have alleged that the e-scooter rider intentionally knocked Jessie down. To that end, a 46-year-old man remains in custody, with his next court appearance scheduled for May 22.</p> <p><em>Images: Nine News | Seven News<br /></em></p>

Caring

Placeholder Content Image

“Such a cowardly thing”: Police hunt after e-scooter hit-and-run on 81-year-old woman

<p>Victoria Police have released an image of a man wanted in connection to an alleged attack on at 81-year-old outside the Melbourne Cricket Ground after an AFL game last Friday. </p> <p>Jessie Hatch, 81, was walking towards Jolimont Railway Station around 11pm when she was confronted by a man on an e-scooter, who told her to “move off the footpath”.</p> <p>Hatch then "explained that the footpath is not for vehicles and walked around him”, prompting the man to ride off, but he quickly turned around before allegedly hitting her from behind, causing her to fall to the ground and lose consciousness.</p> <p>According to Victoria Police, the rider allegedly did not stop to assist Hatch, and was unsuccessfully chased by a passerby.</p> <p>He was last seen heading west from the Swan Street Bridge.</p> <p>“She walked between 7-10m away and this guy’s doubled back and then smashed her from behind,” Jessie's son Ken told <a href="https://7news.com.au/news/mans-words-to-elderly-collingwood-fan-jessie-hatch-before-allegedly-hitting-her-with-e-scooter-in-mcg-hit-and-run-c-14571902" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><em>7News</em></a>.</p> <p>“Apparently she stopped breathing for 20 seconds or so, that’s what we heard.”</p> <p>Jessie is still in hospital recovering with five stitches in her hand and undergoing more tests on her spine to see if there is permanent damage.</p> <p>“Such a cowardly thing, I don’t know what would have gone into his head to do that,” Jessie told <em>7News</em> from her hospital bed.</p> <p>“Why would somebody do that? He should be ashamed of himself.”</p> <p>Police are investigating the incident, with Ken calling on the alleged perpetrator to come forward.</p> <p>“You made a mistake, you did something wrong, come forward,” he added.</p> <p>The man allegedly involved in the incident was of average height and had fair skin and a stocky build, with straight blonde/brown hair and grey/blue eyes.</p> <div> </div> <p>He was wearing thick-lensed glasses and a red jacket made of a shiny, waterproof material.</p> <p>Jessie’s story quickly gained attention around the AFL world, and Collingwood legend Peter Daicos was among those to offer his support.</p> <p>“I wanted to reach out, I heard about the incident after the game,” he said.</p> <p>“I hope you’re feeling better and I’m really looking forward to hearing that you’re back at the Collingwood games.</p> <p>“All the best from not just myself, but the boys and importantly the Collingwood Football Club. All our love, get well soon.”</p> <p><em>Image credits: 7News</em></p> <div class="hide-print ad-no-notice css-qyun7f-StyledAdUnitWrapper ezkyf1c0" style="box-sizing: border-box; caret-color: #292a33; color: #292a33; font-family: HeyWow, Montserrat, 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 15px;"> </div>

Legal

Placeholder Content Image

Man charged over alleged hit-and-run of Mitch East

<p>Last weekend, news broke of the <a href="https://www.oversixty.com.au/finance/legal/police-investigate-after-young-lawyer-killed-in-cowardly-act" target="_blank" rel="noopener">tragic death</a> of 28-year-old lawyer Mitch East in an alleged hit-and-run crash. The incident, which occurred in the early hours of Sunday, March 17, sent shockwaves through the community and left loved ones grappling with profound grief and disbelief.</p> <p>Now, <a href="https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-13226237/Breakthrough-alleged-hit-run-killed-Sydney-lawyer-Mitch-East-Tamarama.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">according to reports</a>, the alleged perpetrator, a 63-year-old man, has turned himself in to authorities and has been charged with a litany of driving offences, including failing to stop and assist after the crash, dangerous driving occasioning death, negligent driving occasioning death, and the use of a mobile phone when not permitted. The arrest, which took place at Granville Police Station, marks a significant development in the ongoing pursuit of justice for East and his grieving family.</p> <p>East, a native of New Zealand, had embarked on a promising legal career that took him across continents. Having studied at prestigious institutions such as Harvard University in the United States, his recent relocation to Australia was met with excitement and anticipation for the opportunities that lay ahead. Tragically, his journey was cut short just moments away from the Tamarama home he shared with his partner, as he was struck down in the early hours of the morning.</p> <p>For East's family, the loss is immeasurable. His mother, <a href="https://www.oversixty.com.au/lifestyle/family-pets/find-that-car-mother-of-fallen-young-lawyer-speaks-out" target="_blank" rel="noopener">speaking in the wake of the tragedy</a>, described her son as her "reason for living". Beyond familial ties, East's impact extended far and wide, touching the lives of friends, mentors and peers who were drawn to his charisma and dedication to justice.</p> <p>Employed at the esteemed law firm Arnold Bloch Leibler in Sydney's CBD, East was celebrated not only for his legal acumen but also for his warmth and camaraderie among colleagues. In a heartfelt message addressed to staff, the firm paid tribute to East as a "highly talented lawyer and popular and valued member", acknowledging the irreplaceable void left by his loss.</p> <p><em>Images: GoFundMe | NSW Police</em></p>

Legal

Placeholder Content Image

Running or yoga can help beat depression, research shows – even if exercise is the last thing you feel like

<p><em><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/michael-noetel-147460">Michael Noetel</a>, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/the-university-of-queensland-805">The University of Queensland</a></em></p> <p>At least <a href="https://www.frontiersin.org/journals/psychiatry/articles/10.3389/fpsyt.2021.665019/full">one in ten people</a> have depression at some point in their lives, with some estimates <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0749379720301793">closer to one in four</a>. It’s one of the worst things for someone’s wellbeing – worse than <a href="https://www.happinessresearchinstitute.com/_files/ugd/928487_4a99b6e23f014f85b38495b7ab1ac24b.pdf">debt, divorce or diabetes</a>.</p> <p><a href="https://theconversation.com/why-are-so-many-australians-taking-antidepressants-221857">One in seven</a> Australians take antidepressants. Psychologists are in <a href="https://theconversation.com/we-cant-solve-australias-mental-health-emergency-if-we-dont-train-enough-psychologists-here-are-5-fixes-190135">high demand</a>. Still, only <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1003901">half</a> of people with depression in high-income countries get treatment.</p> <p>Our <a href="https://www.bmj.com/content/384/bmj-2023-075847">new research</a> shows that exercise should be considered alongside therapy and antidepressants. It can be just as impactful in treating depression as therapy, but it matters what type of exercise you do and how you do it.</p> <h2>Walk, run, lift, or dance away depression</h2> <p>We found 218 randomised trials on exercise for depression, with 14,170 participants. We analysed them using a method called a network meta-analysis. This allowed us to see how different types of exercise compared, instead of lumping all types together.</p> <p>We found walking, running, strength training, yoga and mixed aerobic exercise were about as effective as <a href="https://theconversation.com/explainer-what-is-cognitive-behaviour-therapy-37351">cognitive behaviour therapy</a> – one of the <a href="https://www.frontiersin.org/journals/psychiatry/articles/10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00004/full">gold-standard treatments</a> for depression. The effects of dancing were also powerful. However, this came from analysing just five studies, mostly involving young women. Other exercise types had more evidence to back them.</p> <p>Walking, running, strength training, yoga and mixed aerobic exercise seemed more effective than antidepressant medication alone, and were about as effective as exercise alongside antidepressants.</p> <p>But of these exercises, people were most likely to stick with strength training and yoga.</p> <p><iframe id="cZaWb" class="tc-infographic-datawrapper" style="border: none;" src="https://datawrapper.dwcdn.net/cZaWb/2/" width="100%" height="400px" frameborder="0"></iframe></p> <p>Antidepressants certainly help <a href="https://www.thelancet.com/article/S0140-6736(17)32802-7/fulltext">some people</a>. And of course, anyone getting treatment for depression should talk to their doctor <a href="https://australia.cochrane.org/news/new-cochrane-review-explores-latest-evidence-approaches-stopping-long-term-antidepressants">before changing</a> what they are doing.</p> <p>Still, our evidence shows that if you have depression, you should get a psychologist <em>and</em> an exercise plan, whether or not you’re taking antidepressants.</p> <h2>Join a program and go hard (with support)</h2> <p>Before we analysed the data, we thought people with depression might need to “ease into it” with generic advice, <a href="https://www.who.int/initiatives/behealthy/physical-activity">such as</a> “some physical activity is better than doing none.”</p> <p>But we found it was far better to have a clear program that aimed to push you, at least a little. Programs with clear structure worked better, compared with those that gave people lots of freedom. Exercising by yourself might also make it hard to set the bar at the right level, given low self-esteem is a symptom of depression.</p> <p>We also found it didn’t matter how much people exercised, in terms of sessions or minutes a week. It also didn’t really matter how long the exercise program lasted. What mattered was the intensity of the exercise: the higher the intensity, the better the results.</p> <h2>Yes, it’s hard to keep motivated</h2> <p>We should exercise caution in interpreting the findings. Unlike drug trials, participants in exercise trials know which “treatment” they’ve been randomised to receive, so this may skew the results.</p> <p>Many people with depression have physical, psychological or social barriers to participating in formal exercise programs. And getting support to exercise isn’t free.</p> <p>We also still don’t know the best way to stay motivated to exercise, which can be even harder if you have depression.</p> <p>Our study tried to find out whether things like setting exercise goals helped, but we couldn’t get a clear result.</p> <p>Other reviews found it’s important to have a <a href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31923898/">clear action plan</a> (for example, putting exercise in your calendar) and to <a href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19916637/">track your progress</a> (for example, using an app or smartwatch). But predicting which of these interventions work is notoriously difficult.</p> <p>A <a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-021-04128-4">2021 mega-study</a> of more than 60,000 gym-goers <a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-021-04128-4/figures/1">found</a> experts struggled to predict which strategies might get people into the gym more often. Even making workouts fun didn’t seem to motivate people. However, listening to audiobooks while exercising helped a lot, which no experts predicted.</p> <p>Still, we can be confident that people benefit from personalised support and accountability. The support helps overcome the hurdles they’re sure to hit. The accountability keeps people going even when their brains are telling them to avoid it.</p> <p>So, when starting out, it seems wise to avoid going it alone. Instead:</p> <ul> <li> <p>join a fitness group or yoga studio</p> </li> <li> <p>get a trainer or an exercise physiologist</p> </li> <li> <p>ask a friend or family member to go for a walk with you.</p> </li> </ul> <p>Taking a few steps towards getting that support makes it more likely you’ll keep exercising.</p> <h2>Let’s make this official</h2> <p>Some countries see exercise as a backup plan for treating depression. For example, the American Psychological Association only <a href="https://www.apa.org/depression-guideline/">conditionally recommends</a> exercise as a “complementary and alternative treatment” when “psychotherapy or pharmacotherapy is either ineffective or unacceptable”.</p> <p>Based on our research, this recommendation is withholding a potent treatment from many people who need it.</p> <p>In contrast, The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists <a href="https://www.ranzcp.org/getmedia/a4678cf4-91f5-4746-99d4-03dc7379ae51/mood-disorders-clinical-practice-guideline-2020.pdf">recommends</a> vigorous aerobic activity at least two to three times a week for all people with depression.</p> <p>Given how common depression is, and the number failing to receive care, other countries should follow suit and recommend exercise alongside front-line treatments for depression.</p> <p><em>I would like to acknowledge my colleagues Taren Sanders, Chris Lonsdale and the rest of the coauthors of the paper on which this article is based.</em></p> <p><em>If this article has raised issues for you, or if you’re concerned about someone you know, call Lifeline on 13 11 14.</em><!-- Below is The Conversation's page counter tag. Please DO NOT REMOVE. --><img style="border: none !important; box-shadow: none !important; margin: 0 !important; max-height: 1px !important; max-width: 1px !important; min-height: 1px !important; min-width: 1px !important; opacity: 0 !important; outline: none !important; padding: 0 !important;" src="https://counter.theconversation.com/content/223441/count.gif?distributor=republish-lightbox-basic" alt="The Conversation" width="1" height="1" /><!-- End of code. If you don't see any code above, please get new code from the Advanced tab after you click the republish button. The page counter does not collect any personal data. More info: https://theconversation.com/republishing-guidelines --></p> <p><em><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/michael-noetel-147460">Michael Noetel</a>, Senior Lecturer in Psychology, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/the-university-of-queensland-805">The University of Queensland</a></em></p> <p><em>This article is republished from <a href="https://theconversation.com">The Conversation</a> under a Creative Commons license. Read the <a href="https://theconversation.com/running-or-yoga-can-help-beat-depression-research-shows-even-if-exercise-is-the-last-thing-you-feel-like-223441">original article</a>.</em></p>

Body

Placeholder Content Image

Run out of butter or eggs? Here’s the science behind substitute ingredients

<p><em><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/paulomi-polly-burey-404695">Paulomi (Polly) Burey</a>, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/university-of-southern-queensland-1069">University of Southern Queensland</a></em></p> <p>It’s an all too common situation – you’re busy cooking or baking to a recipe when you open the cupboard and suddenly realise you are missing an ingredient.</p> <p>Unless you can immediately run to the shops, this can leave you scrambling for a substitute that can perform a similar function. Thankfully, such substitutes can be more successful than you’d expect.</p> <p>There are a few reasons why certain ingredient substitutions work so well. This is usually to do with the chemistry and the physical features having enough similarity to the original ingredient to still do the job appropriately.</p> <p>Let’s delve into some common ingredient substitutions and why they work – or need to be tweaked.</p> <p><iframe id="IitfH" class="tc-infographic-datawrapper" style="border: none;" src="https://datawrapper.dwcdn.net/IitfH/1/" width="100%" height="400px" frameborder="0"></iframe></p> <h2>Oils versus butter</h2> <p>Both butter and oils belong to a chemical class called <a href="https://chem.libretexts.org/Bookshelves/Introductory_Chemistry/Map%3A_Fundamentals_of_General_Organic_and_Biological_Chemistry_(McMurry_et_al.)/23%3A_Lipids/23.01%3A_Structure_and_Classification_of_Lipids">lipids</a>. It encompasses solid, semi-solid and liquid fats.</p> <p>In a baked product the “job” of these ingredients is to provide flavour and influence the structure and texture of the finished item. In cake batters, lipids contribute to creating an emulsion structure – this means combining two liquids that wouldn’t usually mix. In the baking process, this helps to create a light, fluffy crumb.</p> <p>One of the primary differences between butter and oil is that butter is only about 80% lipid (the rest being water), while <a href="https://www.nutritionadvance.com/types-of-cooking-fats-and-oils/">oil is almost 100% lipid</a>. Oil creates a softer crumb but is still a great fat to bake with.</p> <p>You can use a wide range of oils from different sources, such as olive oil, rice bran, avocado, peanut, coconut, macadamia and many more. Each of these may impart different flavours.</p> <p>Other “butters”, such as peanut and cashew butter, aren’t strictly butters but pastes. They impart different characteristics and can’t easily replace dairy butter, unless you also add extra oil.</p> <h2>Aquafaba or flaxseed versus eggs</h2> <p>Aquafaba is the liquid you drain from a can of legumes – such as chickpeas or lentils. It contains proteins, kind of how egg white also contains proteins.</p> <p>The proteins in egg white include albumins, and <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5912395/">aquafaba also contains albumins</a>. This is why it is possible to make meringue from egg whites, or from aquafaba if you’re after a vegan version.</p> <p>The proteins act as a foam stabiliser – they hold the light, airy texture in the product. The concentration of protein in egg white is a bit higher, so it doesn’t take long to create a stable foam. Aquafaba requires more whipping to create a meringue-like foam, but it will bake in a similar way.</p> <p>Another albumin-containing alternative for eggs is <a href="https://foodstruct.com/compare/seeds-flaxseed-vs-egg">flaxseed</a>. These seeds form a thick gel texture when mixed with a little water. The texture is similar to raw egg and can provide structure and emulsification in baked recipes that call for a small amount of egg white.</p> <h2>Lemon plus dairy versus buttermilk</h2> <p>Buttermilk is the liquid left over after churning butter – it can be made from sweet cream, cultured/sour cream or whey-based cream. Buttermilk mostly <a href="https://www.journalofdairyscience.org/article/S0022-0302(06)72115-4/fulltext">contains proteins and fats</a>.</p> <p>Cultured buttermilk has a somewhat tangy flavour. Slightly soured milk can be a good substitute as it contains similar components and isn’t too different from “real” buttermilk, chemically speaking.</p> <p>One way to achieve slightly soured milk is by adding some lemon juice or cream of tartar to milk. Buttermilk is used in pancakes and baked goods to give extra height or volume. This is because the acidic (sour) components of buttermilk interact with baking soda, producing a light and airy texture.</p> <p>Buttermilk can also influence flavour, imparting a slightly tangy taste to pancakes and baked goods. It can also be used in sauces and dressings if you’re looking for a lightly acidic touch.</p> <h2>Honey versus sugar</h2> <p>Honey is a <a href="https://resources.perkinelmer.com/lab-solutions/resources/docs/APP_Analysis-of-Sugars-in-Honey-012101_01.pdf">complex sugar-based syrup</a> that includes floral or botanical flavours and aromas. Honey can be used in cooking and baking, adding both flavour and texture (viscosity, softness) to a wide range of products.</p> <p>If you add honey instead of regular sugar in baked goods, keep in mind that honey imparts a softer, moister texture. This is because it contains more moisture and is a humectant (that is, it likes to hold on to water). It is also less crystalline than sugar, unless you leave it to crystallise.</p> <p>The intensity of sweetness can also be different – some people find honey is sweeter than its granular counterpart, so you will want to adjust your recipes accordingly.</p> <h2>Gluten-free versus regular flour</h2> <p>Sometimes you need to make substitutions to avoid allergens, such as gluten – the protein found in cereal grains such as wheat, rye, barley and others.</p> <p>Unfortunately, gluten is also the component that gives a nice, stretchy, squishy quality to bread.</p> <p>To build this characteristic in a gluten-free product, it’s necessary to have a mixture of ingredients that work together to mimic this texture. Common ingredients used are corn or rice flour, xanthan gum, which acts as a binder and moisture holder, and tapioca starch, which is a good water absorbent and can aid with binding the dough. <!-- Below is The Conversation's page counter tag. Please DO NOT REMOVE. --><img style="border: none !important; box-shadow: none !important; margin: 0 !important; max-height: 1px !important; max-width: 1px !important; min-height: 1px !important; min-width: 1px !important; opacity: 0 !important; outline: none !important; padding: 0 !important;" src="https://counter.theconversation.com/content/202036/count.gif?distributor=republish-lightbox-basic" alt="The Conversation" width="1" height="1" /><!-- End of code. If you don't see any code above, please get new code from the Advanced tab after you click the republish button. The page counter does not collect any personal data. More info: https://theconversation.com/republishing-guidelines --></p> <p><em><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/paulomi-polly-burey-404695">Paulomi (Polly) Burey</a>, Associate Professor (Food Science), <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/university-of-southern-queensland-1069">University of Southern Queensland</a></em></p> <p><em>Image credits: Shutterstock</em></p> <p><em>This article is republished from <a href="https://theconversation.com">The Conversation</a> under a Creative Commons license. Read the <a href="https://theconversation.com/run-out-of-butter-or-eggs-heres-the-science-behind-substitute-ingredients-202036">original article</a>.</em></p>

Food & Wine

Placeholder Content Image

15 hacks that make running errands so much better

<p><strong>Run errands during the week</strong></p> <p>More than 90 per cent of people do errands on the weekends, meaning shops will be packed and traffic will be a nightmare. Running errands on a weeknight will get you in and out in half the time. Once the kids are in bed, have one parent stay home while the other drives to the shops. You’ll miss the crowds and keep your weekend free for fun and family.</p> <p><strong>Turn on a podcast</strong></p> <p>Radio music – and its deejays and commercials – can get intense. Switch off the FM and plug in your phone so you can listen to a podcast or audiobook. You’ll be more relaxed, and the time will fly as you get engrossed in the story.</p> <p><strong>Make the most of your time</strong></p> <p>Never run out for just one task. Save time, petrol, and stress by getting more than one thing done when you’re out of the house. After dropping your child off at soccer practice, drop off your dry cleaning or pick up the milk from the supermarket.</p> <p><strong>Set up an errand centre in your home</strong></p> <p>Keeping all the objects you’ll need to complete your errands – packages to be mailed, dry cleaning to be delivered, library books to be returned – in one place will make it easy to get out the door when you get the chance. Designate a space by the door or in your car as a visual reminder of what needs to get done.</p> <p><strong>Buy in bulk</strong></p> <p>Picking up big batches of items like toilet paper, dog food, and tampons means fewer trips to the supermarket and less time running errands. Plus, you save money by buying bulk packages or stocking up while the items are on sale.</p> <p><strong>Use long lines for "me time"</strong></p> <p>Instead of griping about how long your wait to the cash register is, think of it as a few peaceful moments to yourself. Close your eyes (don’t be self-conscious!) and imagine yourself sitting on a quiet beach or getting a massage. Take several deep breaths while you mentally escape to that place. You’ll be much more relaxed, and you can wait in line with less frustration.</p> <p><strong>Practice mindfulness</strong></p> <p>Performing a ‘walking meditation’ while you shop will keep you engaged with your task instead of letting your mind wander to other stressors. By the end of your trip, you’ll have more energy and less frustration. Pay attention to the bright colours of the produce, the scents wafting from the bakery, and the feeling of each step you take.</p> <p><strong>Do someone else's errands</strong></p> <p>If you have an elderly neighbour or know a mother with young kids, offer to add some of their tasks to your to-do list. Studies have shown that helping others can reduce stress.</p> <p><strong>Tune out</strong></p> <p>Instead of drowning out your thoughts with music, keep the radio off when you’re driving and allow your own thoughts to come to you. The stimuli of everyday life can be overwhelming, so this is your chance to recharge your energy in the silence.</p> <p><strong>Keep a grocery list on your phone</strong></p> <p>You probably buy the same things on most of your grocery runs. Instead of writing a new list every week, keep an ongoing list on your phone, which makes it easy to add and remove items. Organise your list in the order you’ll find them at the supermarket. For instance, if you start near the produce section, write the fruits and vegetables first.</p> <p><strong>Reward yourself </strong></p> <p>To keep yourself motivated while you’re out, add a little luxury to your shopping list. Treat yourself with nice bath soap, a bouquet of flowers, or your favourite craft beer.</p> <p><strong>Keep an ongoing errands list</strong></p> <p>Write down your usual tasks, along with the ones you keep forgetting to do, like buying socks for your child or making a vet appointment for the dog, in a notepad. Carry it with you so you don’t miss anything when you’re out. When you’re home, stash it where the rest of your family can access it and jot down their needs.</p> <p><strong>Buy online as much as possible </strong></p> <p>The possibilities are endless: order groceries, buy stamps, cash checks, and renew library books online. Giving your credit card number over a secured server is safer than stating your number over the phone, and sometimes safer than handing your card over at a store.</p> <p><strong>Alternate tasks with your neighbours </strong></p> <p>Make a deal with your neighbours in which you do the grocery shopping one week, and they take care of it the next. You can watch each other’s kids when it’s your turn to stay home, and both of you will make fewer trips to the supermarket. Or plan to go grocery shopping with a friend. You’ll have more fun with the social support, and your kids might behave better with someone else present.</p> <p><strong>Have dad run errands with the kids</strong></p> <p>Kids who cook, clean, and run errands with their dads have more friends and are better behaved, according to a University of California study. Make sure your partner (or you, if you’re a dad) takes the kids along every now and then. As a bonus, wives of men who do chores with their kids find their husbands more attractive.</p> <p><em>Image credits: Getty Images</em></p> <p><em>This article originally appeared on <a href="https://www.readersdigest.com.au/culture/15-hacks-that-make-running-errands-so-much-better?pages=1" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Reader's Digest</a>. </em></p>

Money & Banking

Placeholder Content Image

9 beauty hacks for when you’re running late

<p><strong>Spritz on dry shampoo</strong></p> <p>When you don’t have time to wash or blow-dry your hair, dry shampoo is your new best friend. One quick spritz is a shortcut to volume and oil-free hair. Simply spray the dry shampoo directly at the roots and massage in for a clean, tousled look. Beauty expert and blogger, Jeanette Zinno, shares her special trick, “Use a dry shampoo at night to wake up with fresh textured hair. It has all night to work and absorb.”</p> <p>If you’re in a pinch and don’t have any dry shampoo on hand, run a dryer sheet across your hair, suggests Rochelle Maribojoc from Spa Pechanga. Though it sounds strange, it effectively picks up static, dirt, and oil; even if you plan on throwing your hair into a ponytail or messy bun, it’ll look leagues better.</p> <p><strong>Stock up on travel-size products </strong></p> <p>If you’re constantly running late (hey – no judgments!), having a to-go makeup bag full of mini hair and makeup products at the ready is a lifesaver. On those harried mornings, simply grab this trusty tote and do your beauty routine on the fly (on the train or when you get to your office).</p> <p>Makeup artists, Sam &amp; Nic Chapman, share, “Travel-ready products are fantastic in a bind. If you haven’t had enough time to perfect your look in the morning, you’ll have the tools to freshen it up throughout the day.”</p> <p><strong>Take advantage of multipurpose products </strong></p> <p>Multi-purpose products help reduce the number of products you use and can be applied in less time. For example, a colour stick the can be used for cheeks, eyes, and lips. “I love it because it’s also very small, so you can take it on-the-go too,” Zinno says.</p> <p><strong>Dry nail polish fast with ice water</strong></p> <p>We’ve all been there – you’re going to an event or getting ready for a date, and you didn’t have time for a manicure. Of course, there’s no such thing as speedily painting your nails, as polish requires ample drying time, except, that is, if you use this brilliant trick from Zinno.</p> <p>“Soak your freshly-painted nails in a bowl of ice water for a minute; the cold will dry them quickly. Make sure you have the bowl ready before you paint your nails so you don’t mess them up!”</p> <p><strong>Skip the foundation</strong></p> <p>Unless your skin has a lot of unevenness, you really don’t need foundation 24/7. When you’re in a hurry, you can get away with dabbing concealer under eyes, down the bridge of the nose, on your chin, and on any problem areas like dark spots or pimples.</p> <p>“Using your concealer for spot-concealing is the best time-saver as it provides evenness of tone, while giving your complexion a natural, not-fussy look,” says CEO of Veil Cosmetics, Sébastien Tardif, who adds that you want to pick a concealer that matches your skin tone for the most flattering finish.</p> <p><strong>Apply eyeliner on the "negative space"</strong></p> <p>While cat liner and smoky eyes require a time commitment, filling in the negative space (the area of skin on your eyelid between your lashes and eye) is extremely easy and gives instant definition and make your lashes look fuller without any mascara.</p> <p><strong>Smudge eyeliner for an instant smoky eye </strong></p> <p>For the quickest smoky eye, “Simply line your eyes using a creamy eyeliner and smudge with your ring finger (it’s the weakest, so it’s the best for blending without pulling your delicate eyelid skin),” shares beauty expert and professional makeup artist, Sona Gasparian, “In just a few seconds, you’ll have a simple Parisian look!”</p> <p><strong>Blush is a must</strong></p> <p>Although contouring your full face will eat up too much time, blush is too important to skip, especially in the morning when most of us tend to roll out of bed looking pasty or sallow. If you’re super tight on time, dab a tinted lip balm on your cheeks and blend for a creamy blush alternative.</p> <p>“A little bit of colour on our cheeks can go a long way – the colour makes you look more alive without barely even trying,” says BH Cosmetics.</p> <p><strong>Swipe on a dark lip colour</strong></p> <p>A red, plum, or sophisticated brown lip hue can elevate your look and make others think you dedicated a whole lot of effort on your appearance, even when you didn’t.</p> <p>Choose a lip stain and you won’t even have to re-apply throughout the day, says Liz Fuller from Makeup Artistry Inc, “One quick pat on the lips in the morning as you’re running out the door, and you can forget about it for the remainder of the day.”</p> <p><em>Image credits: Getty Images</em></p> <p><em>This article originally appeared on <a href="https://www.readersdigest.com.au/healthsmart/beauty/9-beauty-hacks-for-when-youre-running-late" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Reader's Digest</a>. </em></p>

Beauty & Style

Placeholder Content Image

Shocking new details in alleged hit and run that killed Police Commissioner's son

<p>Shocking details have emerged from the <a href="https://oversixty.com.au/health/caring/police-commissioner-s-son-killed-during-schoolies-week" target="_blank" rel="noopener">alleged hit-and-run</a> crash that killed South Australia's Police Commissioner's son Charlie Stevens. </p> <p>At Christies Beach Magistrates Court on Wednesday, three witnesses of the incident claimed accused hit-and-run driver Dhirren Randhawa, 18, did a U-turn in his car and drove into 18-year-old Charlie, while he was waiting for a Schoolies shuttle bus. </p> <p>The witnesses, who were waiting with Charlie, say they flagged down Mr Randhawa to see if they could hitch a ride. </p> <p>However, the driver realised he didn't have enough room in the car for the whole group, and drove away before doing a U-turn, according to the witnesses. </p> <p>Court documents revealed that he then allegedly sped up and started travelling on the wrong side of the road before hitting Charlie and driving away. </p> <p>The witness states Mr Randhawa then drove a short distance before calling his mother and asking whether he should turn himself into a police station or call the police.</p> <p>As he was talking to her, the police arrived and arrested him, the witness said.</p> <p>However, another witness told a different version of events, saying Charlie ran in front of Mr Randhawa's car. </p> <p>Mr Randhawa left the courtroom with his mother by his side after being granted bail. </p> <p>Randhawa has been charged with causing death by dangerous driving, aggravated driving without due care, leaving the scene of a crash after causing death and failing to truly answer questions.</p> <p>Charlie sustained irreversible brain damage from the incident, and died 24 hours later in hospital <a href="https://www.oversixty.com.au/health/caring/nat-barr-overwhelmed-by-police-commissioner-s-heartbreaking-letter-to-his-fallen-son" target="_blank" rel="noopener">surrounded by his family</a>. </p> <p><em>Image credits: Facebook</em></p>

Legal

Placeholder Content Image

"You're crazy": Adele accidentally confirms long-running rumour

<p dir="ltr">Adele has reignited a long-standing rumour about her relationship status during her concert in Las Vegas. </p> <p dir="ltr">During her residency show on Saturday night, one excited concertgoer jokingly proposed to the iconic singer, with the moment being captured on video by another fan. </p> <p dir="ltr">Adele, 35, replied to the fan's tongue-in-cheek proposal by saying, "You can't marry me. I'm straight, my love, and my husband's here tonight," referring to her partner of two years, NBA agent Rich Paul, 41.</p> <p dir="ltr">The female fan asked Adele if she'd be willing to "try", to which the singer quipped, "No, I don't want to try! I'm with Rich... you're crazy, leave me alone."</p> <p dir="ltr">The clip of the moment was then posted to TikTok, as fans flocked to the comments to speculate if she was joking about her relationship status, or if she had married her partner in secret.</p> <p dir="ltr">Since the pair first started dating in July 2021, they have attracted a slew of marriage rumours. </p> <p dir="ltr">She last addressed the rumours in 2022 in a candid chat with <a href="https://www.elle.com/culture/music/a40803238/adele-interview-elle-september-cover-2022/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Elle</a> magazine, in which she said "I'm not married. I'm not married!...I'm just in loooove! I'm happy as I'll ever be."</p> <p dir="ltr">The couple first met at a mutual friend's birthday party and immediately hit it off.</p> <p dir="ltr">"I was a bit drunk," Adele revealed in a 2021 interview with <a href="https://www.vogue.co.uk/arts-and-lifestyle/article/adele-british-vogue-interview" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Vogue</a>. "I said, 'Do you want to sign me? I'm an athlete now.'"</p> <p dir="ltr">"He was dancing. All the other guys were just sitting around. He was just dancing away," the singer added.</p> <p dir="ltr"><em>Image credits: Getty Images</em></p>

Relationships

Placeholder Content Image

“I run on bananas and coke cola": Kyrgios wades into doping debate

<p>Nick Kyrgios has raised eyebrows over his out-of-pocket comments on the recent doping scandal surrounding the world of tennis. </p> <p>The Aussie champion spoke over current testing protocols in the wake of Romanian tennis player Simon Halep being slapped with a four-year ban from the game for doping offences.</p> <p>Naturally, many tennis champions from around the world have put in their two cents on the recent ban, as Greek player Maria Sakkari called out the measures for being "scary". </p> <p>She told a tennis news site, “One thing I can tell you for sure is the way they’re handling every situation with any player, any athlete, it’s just scary.”</p> <p>“We’re gonna get to a point where we’re not even gonna be taking electrolytes. Thankfully, I haven’t been in that position. I never want to be. I’ve been very careful with everything that has to do with supplements. But I don’t know what the process is, how things are done behind closed doors."</p> <p>Nick Kyrgios was quick to jump in to the debate, responding to Sakkari's comments on Twitter saying, “Ehhhh not really lol.”</p> <p>“I run on bananas and coke cola in 5 set battles. And my record in them speaks for itself."</p> <p>“Maybe players should just stop taking shady sh*t. Look yourself in the mirror at the end of the day and say yep I did it right. Not hard.”</p> <p>Fans soon came after Kyrgios, but he doubled down.</p> <p>Kyrgios responded to one Twitter user’s sledge by posting, “I’d imagine if I was taking similar things to be banned for 4 years I’d have about 5 slams. Potato”.</p> <p>Kyrgios has had a difficult season as he has been forced to take time off to recover from injuries to his wrist and knees. </p> <p>He has urged his fans to be patient as he works on his recovery, as he is determined to get back on the court. </p> <p>"To my millions of fans out there, I guess we just have to be patient,” Kyrgios wrote in an Instagram story, accompanied by a picture of him in the gym.</p> <p>“Trust me, I still have some fire left in the tank, my body just needs time to recover and get back.”</p> <p><em>Image credits: Getty Images</em></p>

Legal

Placeholder Content Image

Does running water really trigger the urge to pee? Experts explain the brain-bladder connection

<p><em><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/james-overs-1458017">James Overs</a>, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/swinburne-university-of-technology-767">Swinburne University of Technology</a>; <a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/david-homewood-1458022">David Homewood</a>, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/melbourne-health-950">Melbourne Health</a>; <a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/helen-elizabeth-oconnell-ao-1458226">Helen Elizabeth O'Connell AO</a>, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/the-university-of-melbourne-722">The University of Melbourne</a>, and <a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/simon-robert-knowles-706104">Simon Robert Knowles</a>, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/swinburne-university-of-technology-767">Swinburne University of Technology</a></em></p> <p>We all know that feeling when nature calls – but what’s far less understood is the psychology behind it. Why, for example, do we get the urge to pee just before getting into the shower, or when we’re swimming? What brings on those “nervous wees” right before a date?</p> <p>Research suggests our brain and bladder are in constant communication with each other via a neural network called the <a href="https://www.einj.org/journal/view.php?doi=10.5213/inj.2346036.018">brain-bladder axis</a>.</p> <p>This complex web of circuitry is comprised of sensory neural activity, including the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. These neural connections allow information to be sent <a href="https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12123119">back and forth</a> between the brain and bladder.</p> <p>The brain-bladder axis not only facilitates the act of peeing, but is also responsible for telling us we need to go in the first place.</p> <h2>How do we know when we need to go?</h2> <p>As the bladder fills with urine and expands, this activates special receptors detecting stretch in the nerve-rich lining of the bladder wall. This information is then relayed to the “periaqueductal gray” – a part of the brain in the brainstem which <a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/nrn2401">constantly monitors</a> the bladder’s filling status.</p> <figure class="align-center zoomable"><a href="https://images.theconversation.com/files/547931/original/file-20230913-19-2kgkhk.jpg?ixlib=rb-1.1.0&amp;q=45&amp;auto=format&amp;w=1000&amp;fit=clip"><img src="https://images.theconversation.com/files/547931/original/file-20230913-19-2kgkhk.jpg?ixlib=rb-1.1.0&amp;q=45&amp;auto=format&amp;w=754&amp;fit=clip" sizes="(min-width: 1466px) 754px, (max-width: 599px) 100vw, (min-width: 600px) 600px, 237px" srcset="https://images.theconversation.com/files/547931/original/file-20230913-19-2kgkhk.jpg?ixlib=rb-1.1.0&amp;q=45&amp;auto=format&amp;w=600&amp;h=454&amp;fit=crop&amp;dpr=1 600w, https://images.theconversation.com/files/547931/original/file-20230913-19-2kgkhk.jpg?ixlib=rb-1.1.0&amp;q=30&amp;auto=format&amp;w=600&amp;h=454&amp;fit=crop&amp;dpr=2 1200w, https://images.theconversation.com/files/547931/original/file-20230913-19-2kgkhk.jpg?ixlib=rb-1.1.0&amp;q=15&amp;auto=format&amp;w=600&amp;h=454&amp;fit=crop&amp;dpr=3 1800w, https://images.theconversation.com/files/547931/original/file-20230913-19-2kgkhk.jpg?ixlib=rb-1.1.0&amp;q=45&amp;auto=format&amp;w=754&amp;h=570&amp;fit=crop&amp;dpr=1 754w, https://images.theconversation.com/files/547931/original/file-20230913-19-2kgkhk.jpg?ixlib=rb-1.1.0&amp;q=30&amp;auto=format&amp;w=754&amp;h=570&amp;fit=crop&amp;dpr=2 1508w, https://images.theconversation.com/files/547931/original/file-20230913-19-2kgkhk.jpg?ixlib=rb-1.1.0&amp;q=15&amp;auto=format&amp;w=754&amp;h=570&amp;fit=crop&amp;dpr=3 2262w" alt="" /></a><figcaption><span class="caption">The periaqueductal gray is a section of gray matter located in the midbrain section of the brainstem.</span> <span class="attribution"><a class="source" href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brainstem#/media/File:1311_Brain_Stem.jpg">Wikimedia/OpenStax</a>, <a class="license" href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/">CC BY-SA</a></span></figcaption></figure> <p>Once the bladder reaches a certain threshold (roughly 250-300ml of urine), another part of the brain called the “pontine micturition centre” is activated and signals that the bladder needs to be emptied. We, in turn, <a href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16254993/">register this</a> as that all-too-familiar feeling of fullness and pressure down below.</p> <p>Beyond this, however, a range of situations can trigger or exacerbate our need to pee, by increasing the production of urine and/or stimulating reflexes in the bladder.</p> <h2>Peeing in the shower</h2> <p>If you’ve ever felt the need to pee while in the shower (no judgement here) it may be due to the sight and sound of running water.</p> <p>In a 2015 study, <a href="https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0126798">researchers demonstrated</a> that males with urinary difficulties found it easier to initiate peeing when listening to the sound of running water being played on a smartphone.</p> <p>Symptoms of overactive bladder, including urgency (a sudden need to pee), have also been <a href="https://www.alliedacademies.org/articles/environmental-cues-to-urgency-and-incontinence-episodes-in-chinesepatients-with-overactive-urinary-bladder-syndrome.html">linked to</a> a range of environmental cues involving running water, including washing your hands and taking a shower.</p> <p>This is likely due to both physiology and psychology. Firstly, the sound of running water may have a relaxing <em>physiological</em> effect, increasing activity of the parasympathetic nervous system. This would relax the bladder muscles and prepare the bladder for emptying.</p> <p>At the same time, the sound of running water may also have a conditioned <em>psychological</em> effect. Due to the countless times in our lives where this sound has coincided with the actual act of peeing, it may trigger an instinctive reaction in us to urinate.</p> <p>This would happen in the same way <a href="https://www.simplypsychology.org/pavlov.html">Pavlov’s dog learnt</a>, through repeated pairing, to salivate when a bell was rung.</p> <h2>Cheeky wee in the sea</h2> <p>But it’s not just the sight or sound of running water that makes us want to pee. Immersion in cold water has been shown to cause a “cold shock response”, <a href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19945970">which activates</a> the sympathetic nervous system.</p> <p>This so-called “fight or flight” response drives up our blood pressure which, in turn, causes our kidneys to filter out more fluid from the bloodstream to stabilise our blood pressure, in a process called “<a href="https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF00864230">immersion diuresis</a>”. When this happens, our bladder fills up faster than normal, triggering the urge to pee.</p> <p>Interestingly, immersion in very warm water (such as a relaxing bath) may also increase urine production. In this case, however, it’s due to activation of the parasympathetic nervous system. <a href="https://doi.org/10.1007/s004210050065">One study</a> demonstrated an increase in water temperature from 40℃ to 50℃ reduced the time it took for participants to start urinating.</p> <p>Similar to the effect of hearing running water, the authors of the study suggest being in warm water is calming for the body and activates the parasympathetic nervous system. This activation can result in the relaxation of the bladder and possibly the pelvic floor muscles, bringing on the urge to pee.</p> <h2>The nervous wee</h2> <p>We know stress and anxiety can cause bouts of nausea and butterflies in the tummy, but what about the bladder? Why do we feel a sudden and frequent urge to urinate at times of heightened stress, such as before a date or job interview?</p> <p>When a person becomes stressed or anxious, the body goes into fight-or-flight mode through the activation of the sympathetic nervous system. This triggers a cascade of physiological changes designed to prepare the body to face a perceived threat.</p> <p>As part of this response, the muscles surrounding the bladder may contract, leading to a more urgent and frequent need to pee. Also, as is the case during immersion diuresis, the increase in blood pressure associated with the stress response may <a href="https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI102496">stimulate</a> the kidneys to produce more urine.</p> <h2>Some final thoughts</h2> <p>We all pee (most of us several times a day). Yet <a href="https://doi.org/10.5489/cuaj.1150">research has shown</a> about 75% of adults know little about how this process actually works – and even less about the brain-bladdder axis and its role in urination.</p> <p><a href="https://www.continence.org.au/about-us/our-work/key-statistics-incontinence#:%7E:text=Urinary%20incontinence%20affects%20up%20to,38%25%20of%20Australian%20women1.">Most Australians</a> will experience urinary difficulties at some point in their lives, so if you ever have concerns about your urinary health, it’s extremely important to consult a healthcare professional.</p> <p>And should you ever find yourself unable to pee, perhaps the sight or sound of running water, a relaxing bath or a nice swim will help with getting that stream to flow.<!-- Below is The Conversation's page counter tag. Please DO NOT REMOVE. --><img style="border: none !important; box-shadow: none !important; margin: 0 !important; max-height: 1px !important; max-width: 1px !important; min-height: 1px !important; min-width: 1px !important; opacity: 0 !important; outline: none !important; padding: 0 !important;" src="https://counter.theconversation.com/content/210808/count.gif?distributor=republish-lightbox-basic" alt="The Conversation" width="1" height="1" /><!-- End of code. If you don't see any code above, please get new code from the Advanced tab after you click the republish button. The page counter does not collect any personal data. More info: https://theconversation.com/republishing-guidelines --></p> <p><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/james-overs-1458017"><em>James Overs</em></a><em>, Research Assistant, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/swinburne-university-of-technology-767">Swinburne University of Technology</a>; <a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/david-homewood-1458022">David Homewood</a>, Urology Research Registrar, Western Health, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/melbourne-health-950">Melbourne Health</a>; <a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/helen-elizabeth-oconnell-ao-1458226">Helen Elizabeth O'Connell AO</a>, Professor, University of Melbourne, Department of Surgery. President Urological Society Australia and New Zealand, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/the-university-of-melbourne-722">The University of Melbourne</a>, and <a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/simon-robert-knowles-706104">Simon Robert Knowles</a>, Associate Professor and Clinical Psychologist, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/swinburne-university-of-technology-767">Swinburne University of Technology</a></em></p> <p><em>Image credits: Getty Images</em></p> <p><em>This article is republished from <a href="https://theconversation.com">The Conversation</a> under a Creative Commons license. Read the <a href="https://theconversation.com/does-running-water-really-trigger-the-urge-to-pee-experts-explain-the-brain-bladder-connection-210808">original article</a>.</em></p>

Mind

Placeholder Content Image

World famous chefs in the running to replace Jock Zonfrillo

<p>Channel Ten is on the hunt for a new judge to join the <em>MasterChef Australia</em> team, two months after the shocking death of Jock Zonfrillo. </p> <p>Several world-famous chefs are set to be in the running to join Melissa Leong and Andy Allen, with many prospects appearing on the show as guests before. </p> <p>"International names such as Jamie Oliver, Nigella Lawson and Shannon Bennett have all been thrown around," an insider told <em>Woman's Day</em>.</p> <p>Despite the hopes for these chefs to join the cast, the insider said their intense schedules has made booking them for the competitive cooking show "a pipe dream".</p> <p>The network is also reported to be considering bringing back "heritage" names to the show, such as original judges George Calombaris and Gary Mehigan, to attract older viewers.</p> <p>Despite the discussions of Zonfrillo's replacement, rumours have also circulated that Leong and Allen may continue on as co-hosts of the show without a third colleague. </p> <p>The <em>Herald Sun</em> reported that the cooking duo may instead go into the next season alongside a rotating roster of guest judges.  </p> <p>Meanwhile, others have suggested Melissa, 41, and Andy, 35, may be planning to quit <em>MasterChef</em> as they continue to grapple with the tragic death of their co-star.</p> <p>Some fans are convinced the entire hosting panel may be replaced altogether, after Channel Ten refused to confirm Jock's replacement in the recent casting call.</p> <p>The popular cooking show was thrown into disarray after Jock Zonfrillo's devastating death on April 30th, the day the newest season of <em>MasterChef</em> was due to air, with the premiere of the show being delayed a week after his passing. </p> <p><em>Image credits: Instagram</em></p>

Food & Wine

Placeholder Content Image

"I'm glad you're resigning": Kochie's run-in with a heckler

<p>David Koch has shared the details of a nasty altercation he had with a stranger after announcing his departure from <em>Sunrise</em>. </p> <p>Kochie <a href="https://oversixty.com.au/news/news/the-world-s-best-job-kochie-quits-sunrise" target="_blank" rel="noopener">announced</a> on Monday that he would be leaving the Channel Seven breakfast show after 20 years in the hosting chair. </p> <p>The response to his shock resignation has been mostly positive and supportive, as famous friends and loyal viewers have flooded online spaces with well wishes for the veteran TV presenter. </p> <p>However, Kochie shared that after taping had finished for Monday morning's show, he was approached by a heckler on the street while walking with his wife, Libby.</p> <p>“In all of that lovely euphoria, this is just life, I’m walking to lunch with Lib and walked by a bloke and he goes, ‘I’m glad you’re resigning, you are just a paid mouthpiece for Big Pharma’,” Koch said.</p> <p>“An anti-vaxxer. He started yelling at me across the road. Lib’s going ‘What the hell?’.”</p> <p>Koch’s co-host Natalie Barr said, “We take the good with the bad, and we know that.”</p> <blockquote class="twitter-tweet"> <p dir="ltr" lang="en">Kochie has thanked all the well-wishers who responded to the news he is leaving Sunrise, before revealing one random heckler gave him a send-off to forget! <a href="https://twitter.com/kochie_online?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">@kochie_online</a> <a href="https://twitter.com/hashtag/kochie?src=hash&amp;ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">#kochie</a> <a href="https://twitter.com/hashtag/sunriseon7?src=hash&amp;ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">#sunriseon7</a> <a href="https://t.co/uhUhxONeNN">pic.twitter.com/uhUhxONeNN</a></p> <p>— Sunrise (@sunriseon7) <a href="https://twitter.com/sunriseon7/status/1663321697208918018?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">May 29, 2023</a></p></blockquote> <p>Speaking to <a href="https://www.news.com.au/entertainment/tv/morning-shows/david-koch-reveals-he-was-brutally-sledged-in-street-after-quitting-sunrise/news-story/551069985f00f3a4909a32502b4aae91" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><em>news.com.au</em></a>, Koch said that after decades in the game, he was okay with not pleasing everybody.</p> <p>“Yes, we all have faults. I’ve stuffed up and people love me or hate me, but what they see is what they get, and I think they respect that even if they disagree with your views,” he said.</p> <p>“It’s a really intimate relationship with the viewers.”</p> <p>Despite the heckler, Kochie went on to say he had received a lot of kind messages, with one of the nicest tributes coming form his breakfast TV show rival Karl Stefanovic. </p> <p>“A wonderful, classy, respectful [message] from Karl Stefanovic was so nice, really adored that one,” he said on-air.</p> <p>“But so many great messages.”</p> <p><em>Image credits: Sunrise</em></p> <div class="media image" style="caret-color: #000000; color: #000000; font-style: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: auto; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: auto; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-size-adjust: auto; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration: none; box-sizing: inherit; display: flex; flex-direction: column; align-items: center; width: 705.202209px; margin-bottom: 24px; max-width: 100%;"> </div>

TV

Placeholder Content Image

“I didn’t have a voice”: Natt Barr's frank question for Candice Warner

<p>Candice Warner has spoken candidly of her experience following her 2007 bathroom ‘scandal’ with rugby’s Sonny Bill Williams, revealing the real reason she kept her silence for so long. </p> <p>It was during an interview on <em>Sunrise</em> with host Natalie Barr, where Candice was promoting her memoir <em>Running Strong</em>, that she faced another round of questioning over the 16-year-old incident. And it was one question in particular, from Natalie, that prompted the floodgates to open.</p> <p>“Did you think about coming out straight away and talking more about it?” Natalie asked. </p> <p>“This was 16 years ago,” Candice responded. “16 years ago, we lived in a society where we didn’t have the voice, women didn’t have the voice that we do now. I didn’t have the opportunity.</p> <p>“Back then, I was forced to apologise for - I was single - for being in the wrong place at the wrong time. Nowadays that just wouldn’t happen.</p> <p>“I didn’t have a voice back then, now I do, and our society has changed. </p> <p>“It still has a long way to go, but I feel like as a woman, I now have the confidence to be able to tell my side of the story and be heard.”</p> <p>The former ironwoman - who now dedicates her time to her family and her career with Triple M radio and Fox Sports - went on to explain that the reason she hasn’t previously opened up was because of her three daughters with husband David Warner. </p> <p>“In part it was for my three daughters,” she told Natalie, “who in time will be able to read the book, and I wanted them to get a better understanding of my story without any interference or judgement from outside.”</p> <p>Candice has offered a similar explanation in the past, after confronting abuse at the cricket in 2022. </p> <p>“A long time ago, when I was young, I got myself in a compromising position, which I regret,” she said during her appearance on <em>SAS Australia</em>. </p> <p>“It had a huge impact on my family. Huge. It was just a personal situation. Too many drinks.</p> <p>“Living with that and having to explain to my kids in the future is going to be very difficult. Especially when you’ve got three girls.</p> <p>“I remember sitting on the side of the street and not being able to take it anymore.</p> <p>“Yes, I’d made a mistake. But is that really worth, every single day, the media trying to drag me down? I don’t think so.</p> <p>“It’s not something I am proud of but it’s something I can never take back.”</p> <p><em>Images: Getty</em></p>

TV

Placeholder Content Image

Who hit who? Gwyneth Paltrow fighting “hit and run” charges

<p>Gwyneth Paltrow has appeared in court as she fights charges over a skiing collision that left a man with permanent injuries and brain damage. </p> <p>The actor-turned-wellness influencer is being sued for $450,000 (AUD) by a retired optometrist, who claims Paltrow violently crashed into him in 2016 while skiing at one of the most upscale ski resorts in the United States.</p> <p>Terry Sanderson, 76, said Paltrow was skiing down the slopes so recklessly that they collided, leaving him on the ground as she and her entourage continued their descent down Deer Valley Resort, Utah.</p> <p>"Gwyneth Paltrow skied out of control," Sanderson's attorneys claim in the lawsuit, "knocking him down hard, knocking him out, and causing a brain injury, four broken ribs and other serious injuries. Paltrow got up, turned and skied away, leaving Sanderson stunned, lying in the snow, seriously injured."</p> <p>With the lawsuit now lasting several years, Sanderson is suing Paltrow for the hefty six figure sum, claiming that the accident was a result of negligence, and left him with physical injuries and emotional distress.</p> <p>As the trial began, a central question in the case was posed, wondering which skier had the right of way. </p> <p>At ski resorts, the skier who is downhill has the right of way, so the case is largely focused around who was farther down the beginner's run when the collision transpired.</p> <p>Both Paltrow and Sanderson claim in court filings that they were farther downhill when the other rammed into them.</p> <p>Sanderson has also accused the ski resort of "covering up" the matter by not providing complete information on incident reports and not following resort safety policies.</p> <p>After his initial lawsuit seeking $US3.1 million ($4.65 million AUD) was dropped, Sanderson amended the complaint and he is now seeking $US300,000.</p> <p>Paltrow filed a counterclaim, seeking attorney fees and $US1 ($1.50) in damages, as she claims Sanderson was actually the culprit in the collision, is overstating his injuries, and is trying to exploit her celebrity and wealth.</p> <p><em>Image credits: Getty Images</em></p>

Legal

Placeholder Content Image

Australia Post responds to apparent hit-and-run by driver

<p>According to a report by <a href="https://7news.com.au/business/australia-post/australia-post-driver-slammed-after-alleged-hit-and-run-is-caught-on-camera-take-responsibility-c-9207676" target="_blank" rel="noopener">7NEWS</a>, Australian man Alex Ross had his car apparently damaged by a StarTrack delivery vehicle – a courier and delivery service company owned by Australia Post.</p> <p>Ross was able to capture footage of the incident on the camera in his front door, and then shared the footage of the apparent hit-and-run to a Facebook group.</p> <p>The footage shared by Ross to the group shows the moment that the StarTrack van backs into his car parked on the street in front of his home, before taking off and speeding away.</p> <p>Ross went on to share that he had spent the last ten days attempting to resolve the incident by getting some kind of satisfaction or acknowledgement from the company.</p> <p>“Not a damaged or lost parcel per se," shared Ross, "but a damaged car and a wasted 10 days of sitting on the phone trying to get Australia post to acknowledge and take responsibility (and maybe even apologise) for the action of their driver.” </p> <p>Ross' comments drew a furious response from other members of the Facebook group, with most suggesting that Ross report the incident to police.</p> <p>“Take that footage to the police,” one person wrote. <span style="font-family: -apple-system, BlinkMacSystemFont, 'Segoe UI', Roboto, Oxygen, Ubuntu, Cantarell, 'Open Sans', 'Helvetica Neue', sans-serif;">“What an a******* for not stopping!” said another.</span></p> <p>After 7NEWS contacted StarTrack, a spokesperson responded to the incident:</p> <p>“We sincerely apologise for this incident. These actions are not in line with the high service standards we expect of our people when delivering to the community.</p> <p>“This service is performed by a delivery contractor, and they have confirmed their driver no longer performs deliveries on behalf of Australia Post.</p> <p>“We have contacted the vehicle owner to apologise directly and our delivery contractor is working with them to resolve the matter.”</p> <p><em>Image: Alex Ross / Facebook</em></p> <p> </p>

Legal

Our Partners