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Heading to Bali or somewhere tropical these holidays? Here’s what you need to know about dengue fever

<div class="theconversation-article-body"> <p><em><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/cameron-webb-6736">Cameron Webb</a>, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/university-of-sydney-841">University of Sydney</a></em></p> <p>If you’re looking to escape the Australian winter for your next holiday, don’t forget where there’s warmth, there will also be mosquitoes.</p> <p>In turn, tropical destinations can be hot spots of mosquito-borne diseases such as dengue. In fact, Australian health authorities have warned travellers to Bali <a href="https://www.health.wa.gov.au/Media-releases/2024/May/Dengue-fever-warning-for-Western-Australian-travellers">to be aware</a> of the risk of dengue, with cases surging in the region.</p> <p>So here’s how to protect yourself and your family on holidays.</p> <h2>What is dengue?</h2> <p><a href="https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/dengue-and-severe-dengue">Dengue virus infection</a> (commonly known as dengue fever, or just dengue) is caused by viruses spread by the bite of a mosquito. The mosquito species that typically transmit dengue are <em>Aedes aegypti</em> and <em>Aedes albopictus</em>.</p> <p>There are four strains of dengue virus. Each has the potential to cause illness that can range from <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/dengue/signs-symptoms/index.html">mild to severe and potentially life threatening</a>.</p> <p>Symptoms <a href="https://www.health.nsw.gov.au/Infectious/factsheets/Pages/dengue.aspx">typically include</a> rash, fever, chills, headache, muscle and joint pain, and fatigue. People also often report abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting.</p> <p>While infection with just one of these viruses can make you sick, subsequent exposure to other strains can have more <a href="https://theconversation.com/explainer-what-are-antibodies-and-why-are-viruses-like-dengue-worse-the-second-time-68227">serious health implications</a>. In these cases, symptoms can also include the presence of blood in vomit, bleeding gums and breathing difficulties.</p> <p>Dengue infection must be confirmed via a blood test, but there are <a href="https://www.healthdirect.gov.au/dengue-fever">no specific treatments</a>. Most people will recover on their own however <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/dengue/treatment/index.html">staying hydrated is crucial</a> and pain relief can help with symptoms. If more severe illness occurs, seek urgent medical care.</p> <h2>Are travellers at risk?</h2> <p>The disease is now endemic in around 100 countries and <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/dengue/areas-with-risk/index.html">an estimated 4 billion people</a> are considered at risk. Asian countries represent <a href="https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/dengue-and-severe-dengue">around 70%</a> of the global disease burden. Even <a href="https://theconversation.com/how-the-paris-olympics-could-become-a-super-spreader-event-for-dengue-231853">Europe is at risk</a>.</p> <p><a href="https://www.who.int/emergencies/disease-outbreak-news/item/2023-DON498">One of the worst years</a> on record was 2023, but the burden of dengue continues to grow. In the first four months of 2024, Indonesia reported <a href="https://www.who.int/emergencies/disease-outbreak-news/item/2024-DON518">three times as many cases</a> of dengue compared to the same period in 2023.</p> <p>Dengue is not a new risk to Australian travellers. Before COVID disrupted international travel, the number of Australians returning from tropical destinations with dengue <a href="https://europepmc.org/article/med/23692160">was steadily increasing</a>.</p> <p>For example, between 2010 and 2016, there was an average <a href="https://www.mdpi.com/2414-6366/3/1/9">annual increase of 22%</a> of travellers returning to Victoria with dengue. Almost half of these people contracted the illness in Indonesia. Bali is well documented as posing <a href="https://academic.oup.com/jtm/article/25/1/tay061/5065180?login=false">a risk of dengue</a> to travellers.</p> <p>International travel restrictions due to COVID <a href="https://academic.oup.com/jtm/article/31/2/taae014/7577676">abruptly stopped this trend</a>. But now Australians are again embracing international travel, <a href="https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-13303747/Worrying-reason-Aussie-travellers-Bali-coming-sick.html">cases are rising once more</a>.</p> <p>Bali isn’t the only destination with <a href="https://www.washingtonpost.com/health/2024/06/30/dengue-puerto-rico-mosquito-climate-change/">a surge in dengue</a>, but we know it’s a popular holiday destination for Australian travellers. There’s little doubt plenty of families will be heading to Bali these school holidays.</p> <h2>How about the risk in Australia?</h2> <p>Not all mosquitoes can spread dengue viruses. This is why the risk is different in Bali and other tropical regions compared to Australia.</p> <p>Although there are more than 40 Australian mosquito species known or suspected to be transmitting local pathogens, such as <a href="https://journals.plos.org/plospathogens/article?id=10.1371/journal.ppat.1005070">Ross River virus</a>, Australia is generally free of local dengue risk due to the limited spread of <em>Aedes aegypti</em> and <em>Aedes albopictus</em>.</p> <p>While <em>Aedes aegypti</em> is found in <a href="https://www.health.qld.gov.au/clinical-practice/guidelines-procedures/diseases-infection/diseases/mosquito-borne/dengue/virus-fever">parts of Queensland</a>, thanks to interventions by the <a href="https://www.worldmosquitoprogram.org/en/global-progress/australia/cairns-and-surrounds">World Mosquito Program</a> and local authorities dengue risk is low. These interventions include the release of laboratory-bred mosquitoes that prevent mosquitoes in the environment <a href="https://www.worldmosquitoprogram.org/en/work/wolbachia-method">spreading viruses</a>, as well as <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2221169115309096">community education</a>. But <a href="https://theconversation.com/after-decades-away-dengue-returns-to-central-queensland-117821">local cases</a> occasionally occur.</p> <p><em>Aedes albopictus</em> is not currently found <a href="https://theconversation.com/how-we-kept-disease-spreading-asian-tiger-mozzies-away-from-the-australian-mainland-72873">on the Australian mainland</a> but is present in the islands of the Torres Strait. A dengue outbreak <a href="https://www.torres-cape.health.qld.gov.au/about-us/news/further-cases-of-dengue-fever-on-mer">has occurred</a> there this year.</p> <h2>Keep mozzies away during the day, not just at night</h2> <p>While there is a vaccine available, it’s not recommended for <a href="https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.5694/mja2.50471">short-term travellers</a>. There are <a href="https://www.health.gov.au/resources/publications/atagi-advice-on-the-use-of-dengvaxiar-for-australians">strict eligibility criteria</a> for its use, so speak to a health professional for advice.</p> <p>For the majority of travellers, preventing mosquito bites is the only way to prevent disease.</p> <p>But there are differences in the behaviour of dengue mosquitoes that mean the normal measures to avoid mosquito bites may not be as effective.</p> <p>During the Australian summer, mosquitoes found in local wetlands can be <a href="https://theconversation.com/the-worst-year-for-mosquitoes-ever-heres-how-we-find-out-68433">incredibly abundant</a>. We tend to need to reach for the repellent and cover up to stop bites as soon as the sun starts going down.</p> <p><em>Aedes aegypti</em> and <em>Aedes albopictus</em> <a href="https://journals.plos.org/plosntds/article?id=10.1371/journal.pntd.0010818">can aggressively bite people</a> but they’re not as abundant as the swarms of summer mosquitoes back home.</p> <p>They also bite during the day, not just at night. So for those travelling to Bali or other areas at risk of dengue, putting insect repellent on <a href="https://www.smartraveller.gov.au/news-and-updates/global-dengue-fever-outbreaks">throughout the day</a> is recommended.</p> <h2>What to pack for protection</h2> <p>If you’re staying in a major resort, there’s likely to be a mosquito control program in place. This may include minimising available water for mosquito breeding in combination with insecticide use. Mosquitoes are also less likely to be an issue in air-conditioned accommodation.</p> <p>But if you’re planning to spend time out and about visiting local villages, markets, or in nature, it’s best to protect against bites.</p> <p>Light coloured and <a href="https://www.health.wa.gov.au/Media-releases/2024/May/Dengue-fever-warning-for-Western-Australian-travellers">loose fitting clothing</a> will help stop mosquito bites (and help keep you cool). Covered shoes can help too – dengue mosquitoes <a href="https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2016/02/22/465594861/why-zika-spreading-mosquitoes-love-ankles">love smelly feet</a>.</p> <p>Finally, it’s best to take some insect repellent with you. There may not be any available at your destination, and formulations on sale might not have been through the same thorough testing as products <a href="https://www.apvma.gov.au/">approved in Australia</a>.<!-- Below is The Conversation's page counter tag. Please DO NOT REMOVE. --><img style="border: none !important; box-shadow: none !important; margin: 0 !important; max-height: 1px !important; max-width: 1px !important; min-height: 1px !important; min-width: 1px !important; opacity: 0 !important; outline: none !important; padding: 0 !important;" src="https://counter.theconversation.com/content/233670/count.gif?distributor=republish-lightbox-basic" alt="The Conversation" width="1" height="1" /><!-- End of code. If you don't see any code above, please get new code from the Advanced tab after you click the republish button. The page counter does not collect any personal data. More info: https://theconversation.com/republishing-guidelines --></p> <p><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/cameron-webb-6736"><em>Cameron Webb</em></a><em>, Clinical Associate Professor and Principal Hospital Scientist, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/university-of-sydney-841">University of Sydney</a></em></p> <p><em>Image credits: Shutterstock </em></p> <p><em>This article is republished from <a href="https://theconversation.com">The Conversation</a> under a Creative Commons license. Read the <a href="https://theconversation.com/heading-to-bali-or-somewhere-tropical-these-holidays-heres-what-you-need-to-know-about-dengue-fever-233670">original article</a>.</em></p> </div>

Travel Tips

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The voice in your head may help you recall and process words. But what if you don’t have one?

<div class="theconversation-article-body"><em><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/derek-arnold-106381">Derek Arnold</a>, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/the-university-of-queensland-805">The University of Queensland</a></em></p> <p>Can you imagine hearing yourself speak? A voice inside your head – perhaps reciting a shopping list or a phone number? What would life be like if you couldn’t?</p> <p>Some people, including me, cannot have imagined visual experiences. We cannot close our eyes and conjure an experience of seeing a loved one’s face, or imagine our lounge room layout – to consider if a new piece of furniture might fit in it. This is called “<a href="https://theconversation.com/a-blind-and-deaf-mind-what-its-like-to-have-no-visual-imagination-or-inner-voice-226134">aphantasia</a>”, from a Greek phrase where the “a” means without, and “phantasia” refers to an image. Colloquially, people like myself are often referred to as having a “blind mind”.</p> <p>While most attention has been given to the inability to have imagined visual sensations, aphantasics can lack other imagined experiences. We might be unable to experience imagined tastes or smells. Some people cannot imagine hearing themselves speak.</p> <p>A <a href="https://www.sciencealert.com/we-used-to-think-everybody-heard-a-voice-inside-their-heads-but-we-were-wrong">recent study</a> has advanced our understanding of people who cannot imagine hearing their own internal monologue. Importantly, the authors have identified some tasks that such people are more likely to find challenging.</p> <h2>What the study found</h2> <p>Researchers at the University of Copenhagen in Denmark and at the University of Wisconsin-Madison in the United States <a href="https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/09567976241243004">recruited 93 volunteers</a>. They included 46 adults who reported low levels of inner speech and 47 who reported high levels.</p> <p>Both groups were given challenging tasks: judging if the names of objects they had seen would rhyme and recalling words. The group without an inner monologue performed worse. But differences disappeared when everyone could say words aloud.</p> <p>Importantly, people who reported less inner speech were not worse at all tasks. They could recall similar numbers of words when the words had a different appearance to one another. This negates any suggestion that aphants (people with aphantasia) simply weren’t trying or were less capable.</p> <h2>A welcome validation</h2> <p>The study provides some welcome evidence for the lived experiences of some aphants, who are still often told their experiences are not different, but rather that they cannot describe their imagined experiences. Some people feel anxiety when they realise other people can have imagined experiences that they cannot. These feelings may be deepened when others assert they are merely confused or inarticulate.</p> <p>In my own <a href="https://www.frontiersin.org/journals/psychology/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2024.1374349/full">aphantasia research</a> I have often quizzed crowds of people on their capacity to have imagined experiences.</p> <p>Questions about the capacity to have imagined visual or audio sensations tend to be excitedly endorsed by a vast majority, but questions about imagined experiences of taste or smell seem to cause more confusion. Some people are adamant they can do this, including a colleague who says he can imagine what combinations of ingredients will taste like when cooked together. But other responses suggest subtypes of aphantasia may prove to be more common than we realise.</p> <p>The authors of the recent study suggest the inability to imagine hearing yourself speak should be referred to as “anendophasia”, meaning without inner speech. Other authors had suggested <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8551557/">anauralia</a> (meaning without auditory imagery). Still other researchers have referred to all types of imagined sensation as being different types of “imagery”.</p> <p>Having <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0010945222000417">consistent names</a> is important. It can help scientists “talk” to one another to compare findings. If different authors use different names, important evidence can be missed.</p> <h2>We have more than 5 senses</h2> <p>Debate continues about how many senses humans have, but some scientists reasonably argue for a <a href="https://www.sensorytrust.org.uk/blog/how-many-senses-do-we-have#:%7E:text=Because%20there%20is%20some%20overlap,sensation%20of%20hunger%20or%20thirst.">number greater than 20</a>.</p> <p>In addition to the five senses of sight, smell, taste, touch and hearing, lesser known senses include thermoception (our sense of heat) and proprioception (awareness of the positions of our body parts). Thanks to proprioception, most of us can close our eyes and touch the tip of our index finger to our nose. Thanks to our vestibular sense, we typically have a good idea of which way is up and can maintain balance.</p> <p>It may be tempting to give a new name to each inability to have a given type of imagined sensation. But this could lead to confusion. Another approach would be to adapt phrases that are already widely used. People who are unable to have imagined sensations commonly refer to ourselves as “aphants”. This could be adapted with a prefix, such as “audio aphant”. Time will tell which approach is adopted by most researchers.</p> <h2>Why we should keep investigating</h2> <p>Regardless of the names we use, the study of multiple types of inability to have an imagined sensation is important. These investigations could reveal the essential processes in human brains that bring about a conscious experience of an imagined sensation.</p> <p>In time, this will not only lead to a better understanding of the diversity of humans, but may help uncover how human brains can create any conscious sensation. This question – how and where our conscious feelings are generated – remains one of the great mysteries of science.<!-- Below is The Conversation's page counter tag. Please DO NOT REMOVE. --><img style="border: none !important; box-shadow: none !important; margin: 0 !important; max-height: 1px !important; max-width: 1px !important; min-height: 1px !important; min-width: 1px !important; opacity: 0 !important; outline: none !important; padding: 0 !important;" src="https://counter.theconversation.com/content/230973/count.gif?distributor=republish-lightbox-basic" alt="The Conversation" width="1" height="1" /><!-- End of code. If you don't see any code above, please get new code from the Advanced tab after you click the republish button. The page counter does not collect any personal data. More info: https://theconversation.com/republishing-guidelines --></p> <p><em><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/derek-arnold-106381">Derek Arnold</a>, Professor, School of Psychology, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/the-university-of-queensland-805">The University of Queensland</a></em></p> <p><em>Image credits: Shutterstock</em></p> <p><em>This article is republished from <a href="https://theconversation.com">The Conversation</a> under a Creative Commons license. Read the <a href="https://theconversation.com/the-voice-in-your-head-may-help-you-recall-and-process-words-but-what-if-you-dont-have-one-230973">original article</a>.</em></p> </div>

Mind

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All the head-turning looks from the 2024 Met Gala

<p>Known as "fashion's biggest night out", the Met Gala 2024 has kicked off in spectacular style with A-listers from all over the world gracing the carpet at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City. </p> <p>The event, which is a fundraising event for the Met, is held every year on the first Monday of May, to celebrate the Costume Institute’s new exhibition, “Sleeping Beauties: Reawakening Fashion”.</p> <p>The dress code this year, The Garden of Time, is said to be inspired by a short story of the same title written by JG Ballard in 1962. </p> <p>The who's who of Hollywood hit the carpet at the Met this year, led by actress Zendaya, who is this year's co-chair of the event after returning to the Gala for the first time in five years. </p> <p>Many Aussie superstars walked the carpet, such as Nicole Kidman and Keith Urban, Naomi Watts, Troye Sivan, Chris Hemsworth and Kylie Minogue, who attended for the first time since 2014.</p> <p>Hugh Jackman also graced the Met carpet solo for the first time, last attending alongside his now ex-wife Deborra Lee-Furness in 2023. </p> <p>The Aussie actor took to Instagram to share that his dapper Tom Ford tuxedo was the very same outfit that he wore to his first Met Gala in 2004 that had been "refitted and repaired". </p> <p>Other Hollywood legends that graced the carpet included Sarah Jessica Parker, Meg Ryan, Jennifer Lopez, Uma Thurman, Penelope Cruz and many more. </p> <p><em>Image credits: Getty Images </em></p>

Beauty & Style

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Home and Away star accused of "stomping" on woman's head

<p>A former <em>Home and Away</em> star, who has been accused of "stomping" on a woman's head during a violent altercation, was cast to appear on Seven's reality show <em>SAS</em> while battling “declining mental health and escalating drug use” according to court documents. </p> <p>Orpheus Pledger has been accused of the violent alleged assault that took place on March 25th, and was arrested on Thursday following a three-day manhunt by police after he absconded from a Melbourne hospital on Tuesday while on remand.</p> <p>At a bail application that lasted two days, the court heard details of Pledger's years-long deterioration of his mental health, in addition to his alleged prolonged and increasing drug use.</p> <p>A police statement submitted to the court alleged that Pledger was dealing with “declining mental health and escalating drug use” between February 2021 and his alleged attack in March this year. </p> <p>Court documents also alleged that Pledger has been “refusing to engage with mental health services and appears to spend his Centrelink payments on drugs” and had been known to police for many years. </p> <p>During a difficult period with his mental health and drug use, Pledger was cast on Seven's reality show <em>SAS</em>, before he abruptly quit after just two episodes over concerns of his "erratic behaviour". </p> <p>At the bail application, documents alleged the accused is at an “extreme risk of further assaulting” the alleged victim, although Pledger’s lawyer Jasper MacCuspie argued his client’s mental health would deteriorate if he were to remain in custody.</p> <p>Pledger’s matter will be heard again by the Melbourne Magistrates Court in May, where he will face the charges of assault. </p> <p><em>Image credits: Seven </em></p>

Legal

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Eating leafy greens could be better for oral health than using mouthwash

<p><em><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/mia-cousins-burleigh-1201153">Mia Cousins Burleigh</a>, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/university-of-the-west-of-scotland-1385">University of the West of Scotland</a> and <a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/siobhan-paula-moran-1506183">Siobhan Paula Moran</a>, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/university-of-the-west-of-scotland-1385">University of the West of Scotland</a></em></p> <p>Over half the adult population in the <a href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26052472">UK and US</a> have gum disease. Typical treatments include <a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-61912-4">mouthwash</a> and in severe cases, <a href="https://www.magonlinelibrary.com/doi/abs/10.12968/vetn.2017.8.10.542">antibiotics</a>. These treatments have side effects, such as dry mouth, the development of <a href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30967854/">antimicrobial resistance</a> and increased <a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-61912-4">blood pressure</a>.</p> <p>But research has indicated that a molecule called <a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-69931-x">nitrate</a>, which is found in leafy green vegetables, has fewer side effects and offers greater benefits for oral health. And it could be used as a natural alternative for treating oral disease.</p> <p>Inadequate brushing and flossing leads to the build up of <a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-69931-x">dental plaque</a>, a sticky layer of bacteria, on the surface of teeth and gums. Plaque causes tooth decay and gum disease. Sugary and acidic foods, dry mouth, and smoking can also contribute to bad breath, tooth decay, and gum infections.</p> <p>The two main types of gum disease are gingivitis and periodontitis. <a href="https://www.spandidos-publications.com/10.3892/etm.2019.8381">Gingivitis</a> causes redness, swelling and bleeding of the gums. <a href="https://www.spandidos-publications.com/10.3892/etm.2019.8381">Periodontitis</a> is a more advanced form of gum disease, causing damage to the soft tissues and bones supporting the teeth.</p> <p>Periodontal disease can therefore, lead to tooth loss and, when bacteria from the mouth enter the bloodstream, can also contribute to the development of <a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/bdjteam2015163">systemic disorders</a> such as cardiovascular disease, dementia, diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis.</p> <h2>Leafy greens may be the secret</h2> <p>Leafy greens and root vegetables are bursting with <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2666149723000312">vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants</a> – and it’s no secret that a diet consisting of these vegetables is crucial for maintaining a healthy weight, boosting the immune system, and preventing <a href="https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/2048004016661435">heart disease, cancer and diabetes.</a> The multiple health benefits of leafy greens are partly because spinach, lettuce and beetroots are brimming with <a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-69931-x">nitrate</a>, which can be reduced to nitric oxide by nitrate-reducing bacteria inside the mouth.</p> <figure><iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/7zrRlMGeBes?wmode=transparent&amp;start=0" width="440" height="260" frameborder="0" allowfullscreen="allowfullscreen"></iframe><figcaption><span class="caption">Popeye knew a thing or two about the health benefits of eating leafy greens. Boomerang Official, 2017.</span></figcaption></figure> <p>Nitric oxide is known to <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0006295222004191">lower blood pressure</a> and improve <a href="https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0243755#:%7E:text=Nitrate%2Drich%20beetroot%20juice%20offsets,healthy%20male%20runners%20%7C%20PLOS%20ONE">exercise performance</a>. However, in the mouth, it helps to prevent the overgrowth of bad bacteria and reduces <a href="https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0243755#:%7E:text=Nitrate%2Drich%20beetroot%20juice%20offsets,healthy%20male%20runners%20%7C%20PLOS%20ONE">oral acidity</a>, both of which can cause gum disease and tooth decay.</p> <p>As part of our research on nitrate and oral health, <a href="https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0243755#:%7E:text=Nitrate%2Drich%20beetroot%20juice%20offsets,healthy%20male%20runners%20%7C%20PLOS%20ONE">we studied competitive athletes</a>. <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9839431/">Athletes are prone to gum disease</a> due to high intake of carbohydrates – which can cause inflammation of the gum tissues – stress, and dry mouth from breathing hard during training.</p> <p>Our study showed that beetroot juice (containing approximately 12 <a href="https://www.nursingtimes.net/students/an-easy-guide-to-mmols-09-02-2012/">millimole</a> of nitrate) protected their teeth from acidic sports drinks and carbohydrate gels during exercise – suggesting that nitrate could be used as a prebiotic by athletes to reduce the risk of tooth decay.</p> <p>Nitrate offers a lot of promise as an oral health <a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-69931-x">prebiotic</a>. Good oral hygiene and a nitrate rich diet could be the key to a healthier body, a vibrant smile and disease-free gums. This is good news for those most at risk of oral health deterioration such as <a href="https://www.news-medical.net/health/Periodontitis-and-Pregnancy.aspx">pregnant women</a>, and <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8771712/">the elderly</a>.</p> <p>In the UK, antiseptic mouthwashes containing <a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-61912-4">chlorhexidine</a> are commonly used to treat dental plaque and gum disease. Unfortunately, these mouthwashes are a blunderbuss approach to oral health, as they indiscriminately remove both good and bad bacteria and increase oral acidity, which can cause disease.</p> <p>Worryingly, early research also indicates that chlorhexidine may contribute to <a href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30967854/">antimicrobial resistance</a>. Resistance occurs when bacteria and fungi survive the effects of one or more <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4768623/">antimicrobial drugs</a> due to repeated exposure to these treatments. Antimicrobial resistance is a <a href="https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(21)02724-0/fulltext">global health concern</a>, predicted to cause 10 million deaths yearly by the year 2050.</p> <p>In contrast, dietary nitrate is more targeted. Nitrate eliminates disease-associated bacteria, reduces oral acidity and creates a balanced <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2944498/">oral microbiome</a>. The oral microbiome refers to all the microorganisms in the mouth. Nitrate offers exciting potential as an <a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-69931-x">oral health prebiotic</a>, which can be used to prevent disease onset or limit disease progression.</p> <h2>How many leafy greens for pearly whites?</h2> <p>So how much should we consume daily? As a rule of thumb, a generous helping of spinach, kale or beetroot at mealtimes contains about 6-10 mmol of nitrate and offers immediate health benefits.</p> <p>Work we have done with our collaborators has shown that treating <a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-69931-x">plaque samples</a> from periodontal disease patients with 6.5 mmol of nitrate increased healthy bacteria levels and reduced acidity.</p> <p>For example, consuming <a href="https://aap.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/JPER.20-0778">lettuce juice</a> for two weeks reduced gum inflammation and increased healthy bacteria levels in patients with gum disease.</p> <p>Growing evidence suggests that nitrate is a cornerstone of oral health. Crunching on a portion of vegetables at mealtimes can help to prevent or treat oral disease and keeps the mouth fresh and healthy.<!-- Below is The Conversation's page counter tag. Please DO NOT REMOVE. --><img style="border: none !important; box-shadow: none !important; margin: 0 !important; max-height: 1px !important; max-width: 1px !important; min-height: 1px !important; min-width: 1px !important; opacity: 0 !important; outline: none !important; padding: 0 !important;" src="https://counter.theconversation.com/content/221181/count.gif?distributor=republish-lightbox-basic" alt="The Conversation" width="1" height="1" /><!-- End of code. If you don't see any code above, please get new code from the Advanced tab after you click the republish button. The page counter does not collect any personal data. More info: https://theconversation.com/republishing-guidelines --></p> <p><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/mia-cousins-burleigh-1201153"><em>Mia Cousins Burleigh</em></a><em>, Lecturer, School of Health and Life Sciences, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/university-of-the-west-of-scotland-1385">University of the West of Scotland</a> and <a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/siobhan-paula-moran-1506183">Siobhan Paula Moran</a>, PhD candidate, School of Health and Life Sciences, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/university-of-the-west-of-scotland-1385">University of the West of Scotland</a></em></p> <p><em>Image credits: Shutterstock</em></p> <p><em>This article is republished from <a href="https://theconversation.com">The Conversation</a> under a Creative Commons license. Read the <a href="https://theconversation.com/eating-leafy-greens-could-be-better-for-oral-health-than-using-mouthwash-221181">original article</a>.</em></p>

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Aussie grandma and former Greens candidate jailed in Japan claims she was scammed

<p>Donna Nelson, a 57-year-old Perth grandmother, has found herself entangled in a nightmarish situation in a Japanese prison, accused of a crime she vehemently denies.</p> <p>Nelson, an Aboriginal health advocate and former Greens candidate, has been incarcerated for nearly a year without a trial date set, facing allegations of attempting to smuggle two kilograms of meth into Japan. However, her plight is not as straightforward as it may seem, and her family and legal team are tirelessly fighting to clear her name.</p> <p>The ordeal began on January 4, when Nelson was arrested at Narita Airport in Tokyo. Authorities claimed to have discovered drugs concealed within a false compartment in her luggage. According to the prosecution, a customs officer suspected her of acting suspiciously. But the narrative has taken a complex turn as Nelson's defence team unveiled a shocking revelation: she alleges she was deceived and manipulated by a Nigerian scammer who had groomed her for two years.</p> <p>Since her arrest, Nelson has been confined to Chibu prison, located an hour outside Tokyo. Her living conditions are appalling; she spends 23 hours a day isolated in her cell, showers are allowed only every three days, and communication with other inmates and visitors is strictly prohibited. This form of treatment is a reflection of Japan's infamous "hostage justice" strategy, aimed at coercing confessions from detainees.</p> <p>The only individuals granted access to Nelson are her lawyers, Australian embassy representatives, and a pastor. Legal representatives have identified a significant issue with translation throughout the case, and it could very well hinge on an inaccurate translation by the customs officer at the time of her arrest.</p> <p>Rie Nishida from Shinjuku International Law Firm, one of Nelson's lawyers, explained, "The main evidence from the prosecution is mainly a customs officer who said she acted suspiciously. There's a lot of mistranslation that's also the difficulty in this case."</p> <p>This mistranslation issue is not trivial; it extends to the messages exchanged between Nelson and the man she believed she had a romantic connection with, who ultimately turned out to be a scammer.</p> <p>Matthew Owens, another member of the legal team and a translator for the case, noted, "Some of them were completely wrongly translated, so we had to re-translate those messages and submit them back to the prosecutor."</p> <p>Nelson remains steadfast in her conviction that she is innocent of the accusations against her. Her lawyer,  Owens, relayed her message, saying, "Donna wants to say that she is going to be able to prove her innocence, she's 100 per cent confident of that, and she wants everyone in Australia and the world to know she is innocent."</p> <p>If found guilty, Nelson could face a harrowing 20-year sentence in a Japanese prison, a terrifying prospect for both her and her family. Her five daughters and grandchildren are distraught, but they are not giving up the fight to prove her innocence. They believe they have evidence to substantiate the claim that she was scammed and unjustly accused.</p> <p><em>Image: Australian Greens</em></p>

Legal

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"Hot girl summer": Jackie O turns heads in swimsuit on enchanting getaway

<p>Radio host Jackie 'O' Henderson has embarked on a "magical" vacation to Ningaloo Reef in Western Australia, accompanied by her close friend, Gemma O’Neill – leaving left her fans in awe with the beachside photos she shared online.</p> <p>The 48-year-old shared an image of herself and Gemma on the sandy shore, prompting her followers to declare that Jackie was fully embracing a "hot girl summer".</p> <p>"Deserted beaches, sunsets, super moons, no phones, and swimming with gentle whale sharks 💛 @gemmyjean, thank you for this incredible birthday gift," Jackie captioned the photos, some of which showed the duo swimming alongside these magnificent creatures.</p> <p>"Wow, that looks absolutely amazing 🙌," remarked Kylie Gillies.</p> <p>"It looks absolutely incredible! Adding it to my list ❤️❤️❤️," chimed in Michelle Bridges.</p> <p>"Your beautiful friendship with Gem is heartwarming. Hip, hip hooray, Jack! ❤️," gushed Melissa Hoyer.</p> <p>"Seems like you had a blast on your little getaway! Looks like so much fun," one user commented, while another exclaimed, "Absolutely stunning!"</p> <p>"That's the way to live 🙌," added a third.</p> <p>"Radiant beauties basking in the joy of life!" another fan noted.</p> <p>Several others complimented Jackie, calling her "gorgeous" and the experience "magical".</p> <p>This exciting adventure followed an amusing incident in which Jackie was caught with an embarrassing item in her luggage while en route to Western Australia.</p> <p>Before her departure, the producers of the Kyle and Jackie O show surreptitiously placed a large vibrator in her carry-on bag, ensuring it would be discovered by airport security by attaching it to a sizeable aerosol can.</p> <p>Jackie recounted the prank to her listeners on-air, stating, "That [phallic object] was in my suitcase, planted by our staff, so that when I went through security, it was uncovered. I could have died!"</p> <p>"They placed this [adult toy] in my bag, thinking it would be a funny joke," she continued. "[Airport security] showed me the X-ray and asked, 'What is this?' And I genuinely had no idea."</p> <p>Video footage of the prank was shared on the show's Instagram account, featuring Jackie with airport security as they inspected her bag.</p> <p>"I'm turning beet red! Stop it! Someone has placed something in there. It's not mine," she exclaimed to the unamused security personnel. "I'm mortified. My colleagues at work played a prank on me. I'm sure you've seen this happen before."</p> <p>"I felt like such a fool," Jackie admitted to her producers.</p> <blockquote class="instagram-media" style="background: #FFF; border: 0; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: 0 0 1px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.5),0 1px 10px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.15); margin: 1px; max-width: 540px; min-width: 326px; padding: 0; width: calc(100% - 2px);" data-instgrm-captioned="" data-instgrm-permalink="https://www.instagram.com/reel/CxxDebVPe72/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" data-instgrm-version="14"> <div style="padding: 16px;"> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: row; align-items: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 50%; flex-grow: 0; height: 40px; margin-right: 14px; width: 40px;"> </div> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: column; flex-grow: 1; justify-content: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; margin-bottom: 6px; width: 100px;"> </div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; width: 60px;"> </div> </div> </div> <div style="padding: 19% 0;"> </div> <div style="display: block; height: 50px; margin: 0 auto 12px; width: 50px;"> </div> <div style="padding-top: 8px;"> <div style="color: #3897f0; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: 550; line-height: 18px;">View this post on Instagram</div> </div> <div style="padding: 12.5% 0;"> </div> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: row; margin-bottom: 14px; align-items: center;"> <div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 50%; height: 12.5px; width: 12.5px; transform: translateX(0px) translateY(7px);"> </div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; height: 12.5px; transform: rotate(-45deg) translateX(3px) translateY(1px); width: 12.5px; flex-grow: 0; margin-right: 14px; margin-left: 2px;"> </div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 50%; height: 12.5px; width: 12.5px; transform: translateX(9px) translateY(-18px);"> </div> </div> <div style="margin-left: 8px;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 50%; flex-grow: 0; height: 20px; width: 20px;"> </div> <div style="width: 0; height: 0; border-top: 2px solid transparent; border-left: 6px solid #f4f4f4; border-bottom: 2px solid transparent; transform: translateX(16px) translateY(-4px) rotate(30deg);"> </div> </div> <div style="margin-left: auto;"> <div style="width: 0px; border-top: 8px solid #F4F4F4; border-right: 8px solid transparent; transform: translateY(16px);"> </div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; flex-grow: 0; height: 12px; width: 16px; transform: translateY(-4px);"> </div> <div style="width: 0; height: 0; border-top: 8px solid #F4F4F4; border-left: 8px solid transparent; transform: translateY(-4px) translateX(8px);"> </div> </div> </div> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: column; flex-grow: 1; justify-content: center; margin-bottom: 24px;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; margin-bottom: 6px; width: 224px;"> </div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; width: 144px;"> </div> </div> <p style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; line-height: 17px; margin-bottom: 0; margin-top: 8px; overflow: hidden; padding: 8px 0 7px; text-align: center; text-overflow: ellipsis; white-space: nowrap;"><a style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: 17px; text-decoration: none;" href="https://www.instagram.com/reel/CxxDebVPe72/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" target="_blank" rel="noopener">A post shared by Kyle and Jackie O (@kyleandjackieo)</a></p> </div> </blockquote> <p>Ultimately, Jackie had to retain the item and dispose of it herself, tossing it into a nearby bin.</p> <p>"Seriously, do you realise how humiliating that was? It was an incredibly lifelike object!" she exclaimed in the video once she realised that her producer had filmed the prank at the airport.</p> <p>Listeners thoroughly enjoyed the prank, with one Instagram user writing, "I'm currently in the hospital, and this made my day."</p> <p>"Best prank ever!!! It brightened my day," another fan praised.</p> <p>"OMG, this is hilarious!" a third person added. "I'm sorry, Jackie, I know you were embarrassed, but it was genuinely funny."</p> <p><em>Images: Instagram</em></p>

Domestic Travel

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Why does my hair turn green from the swimming pool?

<p><em><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/magdalena-wajrak-1432339">Magdalena Wajrak</a>, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/edith-cowan-university-720">Edith Cowan University</a></em></p> <p>If you are a blonde like me and enjoy laps in a swimming pool, you may have noticed your hair acquires a green tint after frequent swims in chlorinated water.</p> <p>This happens to both bleached and natural blondes. In fact, the green tinge happens to everyone, but it’s less visible on dark hair and those whose hair isn’t damaged by chemical treatments such as bleaching.</p> <p>But what exactly causes this green discoloration, and what can we do about it? Most of us blame the chlorine in the pool water. However, although chlorine does play a part, it is not the main culprit.</p> <h2>Which chemicals in the pool turn the hair green?</h2> <p>The element to blame for the green staining of hair is copper.</p> <p>The main source of copper is copper sulfate (CuSO₄), a compound added to swimming pools to prevent the growth of algae. <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1568988320301803?via%3Dihub">Contact with algae</a> can cause skin irritation and respiratory issues, and ingesting water with algae can lead to serious gastrointestinal problems. Only a small amount (around 0.5mg per litre or 0.5 parts per million) of copper sulfate is needed to prevent algal growth.</p> <p>However, copper can also enter swimming pools through the corrosion of water pipes, so concentrations may be higher in some pools.</p> <p>Copper sulfate crystals are greenish-blue in colour. So, when hair comes into contact with copper ions – a positively charged variant of a copper atom with extra electrons – those ions get absorbed by the hair and cause the greenish hue.</p> <p>Scientists were fascinated by the green “pool hair” phenomenon as far back as the 1970s, so we actually have research data on copper being the cause.</p> <p>One very <a href="https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamadermatology/article-abstract/538197">interesting study in 1978</a> performed experiments by immersing hair samples into water containing different concentrations of copper ions, chlorine and various pH values (neutral and basic). Their results showed hair exposed to free copper ions does turn green.</p> <p>Furthermore, when hair is oxidised (meaning electrons are removed from the hair proteins) by chlorine, it actually damages the hair, enhancing the absorption of copper ions. Hair submerged in water with chlorine but without copper ions did not turn green. Meanwhile, hair exposed to water with only copper ions and no chlorine still formed a green colour.</p> <p>Hence, chlorine by itself does not play a role in causing the green hue we see in “pool hair”, but it does exacerbate it.</p> <h2>So, how does copper get into the hair?</h2> <p><a href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4684-0943-7_24">Other research teams</a> have conducted <a href="https://doi.org/10.1071/ch9682437">more extensive studies</a>, using sophisticated instruments, such as scanning electron microscopy, to examine how exactly copper ions attach to the hair.</p> <p>Our hair is predominantly composed of protein called keratin. Keratin is classified as a “structural fibrous protein”, meaning it has an elongated, sheet-like structure.</p> <p>The keratin structure is composed of various <a href="https://chem.libretexts.org/Courses/University_of_Kentucky/UK%3A_CHE_103_-_Chemistry_for_Allied_Health_(Soult)/Chapters/Chapter_4%3A_Structure_and_Function/4.4%3A_Functional_Groups">chemical groups</a> (types of atom groupings with similar properties), such as carboxyl groups, amino groups and disulfide groups. Copper ions have the ability to form bonds with these groups, forming a copper-keratin complex. This complex remains in the hair, causing it to appear green.</p> <p>Interestingly, the most recent study <a href="https://doi.org/10.32657/10356/142466">conducted in 2020</a>, showed copper ions mainly bind to the disulfide groups. This study also found other metal ions such as zinc, lead, chromium and mercury also bind to hair in the same way. This is very useful in <a href="https://theconversation.com/forensic-breakthrough-study-suggests-humans-can-be-identified-by-the-proteins-in-their-hair-65051">forensic analysis</a>, for example, because forensic scientists can analyse hair samples to determine if a person has been exposed to a particular metal.</p> <p>Light-coloured hair already has the most visible green discoloration, but research has shown that damaged hair, caused by bleaching, straightening, or exposure to sun, is the <a href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19586601/">most susceptible</a> to the binding of copper ions. This is because in damaged hair the disulfide groups have “broken bonds” (the link that holds the elements within these groups together is broken), making it easier for the copper ions to bind to the hair.</p> <h2>Can I prevent the green colour or get rid of it?</h2> <p>To prevent your hair from turning green in a swimming pool, you have two basic options. The first is a physical barrier – just wear a swim cap.</p> <p>The second option is chemical – you can pre-treat your hair with an alkaline shampoo. <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0891584918310050">Studies have shown</a> under alkaline pH conditions, the copper ions won’t attach to the hair. To treat your hair before going to the pool, you can either use a shampoo with a pH higher than 7, or you can even try mixing some baking soda into your regular shampoo.</p> <p>But what can you do if your hair has already turned greenish? Well, you can try washing your hair with a shampoo designed to achieve this, typically marketed as a “chlorine removal” shampoo. These products contain a chemical called EDTA – it can bind to metal ions (such as copper) and thus will remove copper from the hair.</p> <p>You may have heard tomato sauce or ketchup is a good way to get the green out of your pool hair – potentially because the red pigments are supposed to “cancel out” the green ones. However, I’m not aware of any scientific evidence this would work.</p> <p><em>Correction: This article has been amended to clarify that alkaline shampoos have a pH higher than 7, not lower.</em><!-- Below is The Conversation's page counter tag. Please DO NOT REMOVE. --><img style="border: none !important; box-shadow: none !important; margin: 0 !important; max-height: 1px !important; max-width: 1px !important; min-height: 1px !important; min-width: 1px !important; opacity: 0 !important; outline: none !important; padding: 0 !important;" src="https://counter.theconversation.com/content/211736/count.gif?distributor=republish-lightbox-basic" alt="The Conversation" width="1" height="1" /><!-- End of code. If you don't see any code above, please get new code from the Advanced tab after you click the republish button. The page counter does not collect any personal data. More info: https://theconversation.com/republishing-guidelines --></p> <p><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/magdalena-wajrak-1432339"><em>Magdalena Wajrak</em></a><em>, Senior lecturer, Chemistry, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/edith-cowan-university-720">Edith Cowan University</a></em></p> <p><em>Image </em><em>credits: Getty Images</em></p> <p><em>This article is republished from <a href="https://theconversation.com">The Conversation</a> under a Creative Commons license. Read the <a href="https://theconversation.com/why-does-my-hair-turn-green-from-the-swimming-pool-211736">original article</a>.</em></p>

Beauty & Style

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My Royal Melbourne Seniors Classic Adventure: A day on the greens (and in the bunkers!)

<p dir="ltr">G'day to all past, present, and emerging golf enthusiasts!</p> <p dir="ltr">If you're a senior golfer like me, hunting for inspiration, adventure, and authentic golf yarns — this is for you.</p> <p dir="ltr">Picture this: a crisp August morning, and sixty-two senior golfers gathered on Royal Melbourne's West Course for the Vic Seniors Classic 2023. Here's the story of how it all went down...</p> <p dir="ltr">Before anything else, I mustered the guts to jump in. Ever heard of "imposter syndrome"? Trust me, I was its best mate. But the requirements were clear: age 55+ (I'm a proud 65-year-old), GA Handicap under 24.5 (18.5), and a $225 entry fee. Wait, $225? Given that Royal Melbourne's green fees dance around $1000, caddy fee included, it was a no-brainer.</p> <p dir="ltr">Fueled by the temptation of playing a top-notch course for a quarter of the fee, I submitted my application without hesitation. Before I knew it, my name adorned the list of players.</p> <p dir="ltr">As the day approached, I was geared up to tackle the Royal Melbourne challenge.</p> <p dir="ltr">The 8 am shotgun start meant groups teed off from various holes. I found myself at the 11th tee, flanked by two fierce competitors: Peter (Daily Handicap 1) and Damian (12). Yours truly? A modest 20.</p> <p dir="ltr">Standing over the ball, knees a tad wobbly, I swung that driver. The ball sailed gracefully, landing centre fairway, while their shots had taken a wilder route into the rough. The lesson? 'How near,' not 'how far'.</p> <p dir="ltr">Now, let's talk about those Royal Melbourne greens. Rumour had it, they were "super fast". Super fast? Imagine sliding a ball across your kitchen's polished tiles — yep, that rapid.</p> <p dir="ltr">Around the course, bunkers became my stern mentors — big, deep, and oh-so unforgiving.</p> <p dir="ltr">Post 18 holes, scorecards were in, followed by the triumphant crowning of winners over lunch.</p> <p dir="ltr">Rodney Ware (75 gross) and Kevin Naismith (81 gross) led in men's gross, while Wayne Moon (72 net) and Craig Lonsdale (73 net) dominated the net division. Melinda Crawford (16, scratch stableford) and Louise Yuen (29 handicap points) shone in the women's.</p> <p dir="ltr">Kudos to winners, fellow players, Royal Melbourne and Golf Australia for the unforgettable day.</p> <p dir="ltr">By the way, can you see yourself on those hallowed Royal Melbourne greens? If your inner golfer nods, I'm your cheerleader. Consider joining me for the 2024 Royal Melbourne Seniors Classic.</p> <p dir="ltr">And as I wrap up, let me leave you with the timeless words of the legendary Peter Thomson: "Golf is a game of how near, not how far".</p> <p dir="ltr">Until next time, keep those swings buttery, putts steadfast, and steer clear of those tricky bunkers.</p> <p dir="ltr">PS: My result? T43rd (net) among the 48 male players. Next time I'll be swinging even better.</p> <p dir="ltr"><strong><em>About the Writer: Mike Searles is a Melbourne retiree who's living the golfing dream.</em></strong></p> <p><em>Image credits: Getty Images</em></p>

Domestic Travel

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Ally Langdon goes head-to-head with Albo over the Voice to Parliament

<p dir="ltr">Ally Langdon has grilled Anthony Albanese over the Voice to Parliament, after the Prime Minister announced the vote would take place on October 14th. </p> <p dir="ltr">The PM appeared on <em>A Current Affair</em> for the fiery interview, in which Langdon asked for clarification on what the Voice would mean for everyday Aussies if it was voted in. </p> <p dir="ltr">Langdon accused Albo and the Yes campaign for their “wishy-washy” messaging, while arguing that “people don’t understand” what would change if a Voice was appointed. </p> <p dir="ltr">Albanese said it will give Indigenous Australians an opportunity to be heard on important matters, because up until this point they "quite clearly" haven't been listened to enough.</p> <blockquote class="instagram-media" style="background: #FFF; border: 0; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: 0 0 1px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.5),0 1px 10px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.15); margin: 1px; max-width: 540px; min-width: 326px; padding: 0; width: calc(100% - 2px);" data-instgrm-permalink="https://www.instagram.com/reel/Cwj_d0msmPp/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" data-instgrm-version="14"> <div style="padding: 16px;"> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: row; align-items: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 50%; flex-grow: 0; height: 40px; margin-right: 14px; width: 40px;"> </div> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: column; flex-grow: 1; justify-content: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; margin-bottom: 6px; width: 100px;"> </div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; width: 60px;"> </div> </div> </div> <div style="padding: 19% 0;"> </div> <div style="display: block; height: 50px; margin: 0 auto 12px; width: 50px;"> </div> <div style="padding-top: 8px;"> <div style="color: #3897f0; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: 550; line-height: 18px;">View this post on Instagram</div> </div> <div style="padding: 12.5% 0;"> </div> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: row; margin-bottom: 14px; align-items: center;"> <div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 50%; height: 12.5px; width: 12.5px; transform: translateX(0px) translateY(7px);"> </div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; height: 12.5px; transform: rotate(-45deg) translateX(3px) translateY(1px); width: 12.5px; flex-grow: 0; margin-right: 14px; margin-left: 2px;"> </div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 50%; height: 12.5px; width: 12.5px; transform: translateX(9px) translateY(-18px);"> </div> </div> <div style="margin-left: 8px;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 50%; flex-grow: 0; height: 20px; width: 20px;"> </div> <div style="width: 0; height: 0; border-top: 2px solid transparent; border-left: 6px solid #f4f4f4; border-bottom: 2px solid transparent; transform: translateX(16px) translateY(-4px) rotate(30deg);"> </div> </div> <div style="margin-left: auto;"> <div style="width: 0px; border-top: 8px solid #F4F4F4; border-right: 8px solid transparent; transform: translateY(16px);"> </div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; flex-grow: 0; height: 12px; width: 16px; transform: translateY(-4px);"> </div> <div style="width: 0; height: 0; border-top: 8px solid #F4F4F4; border-left: 8px solid transparent; transform: translateY(-4px) translateX(8px);"> </div> </div> </div> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: column; flex-grow: 1; justify-content: center; margin-bottom: 24px;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; margin-bottom: 6px; width: 224px;"> </div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; width: 144px;"> </div> </div> <p style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; line-height: 17px; margin-bottom: 0; margin-top: 8px; overflow: hidden; padding: 8px 0 7px; text-align: center; text-overflow: ellipsis; white-space: nowrap;"><a style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: 17px; text-decoration: none;" href="https://www.instagram.com/reel/Cwj_d0msmPp/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" target="_blank" rel="noopener">A post shared by A Current Affair (@acurrentaffair9)</a></p> </div> </blockquote> <p dir="ltr">"We know that when programs have involved Indigenous Australians … the programs that have been the most successful in overcoming disadvantage have been ones that have had that ownership; have come from the bottom up listening to Indigenous Australians," he said. </p> <p dir="ltr">"(The Voice) is aimed at closing the gap on health and education and housing," Albanese said.</p> <p dir="ltr">The prime minister said First Nations Australians will be the ones to elect a representative and that the Voice to Parliament is important because it's an opportunity for the current generation to make a change.</p> <p dir="ltr">"This will not impact most Australians directly, but it might just make life better for the three per cent of Australians who happen to be the most disadvantaged group - the First Nations people," he said. </p> <p dir="ltr">"I think it will be a moment where we can show respect to them; where we can feel better about ourselves as well as a nation and where the world can look at us and say 'Australia is a mature, grown-up nation'."</p> <p dir="ltr">Despite Albo’s diplomatic answers, Langdon’s line of questioning caused a stir with viewers, as many took to X - formerly known as Twitter, to share their brief that Ally’s questions skewed toward giving weight to the No campaign.</p> <blockquote class="twitter-tweet"> <p dir="ltr" lang="en">Genuinely offended by Ally Langdon’s utter ignorance of the Voice referendum and diminishing herself to a mere mouthpiece for the No vote’s disinformation. <a href="https://twitter.com/AlboMP?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">@AlboMP</a> was patient and clear. Wasn’t a balanced interview.</p> <p>Not good enough <a href="https://twitter.com/ACurrentAffair9?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">@ACurrentAffair9</a>.</p> <p>— Howie Jakeway (@howierj) <a href="https://twitter.com/howierj/status/1696846355774513358?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">August 30, 2023</a></p></blockquote> <blockquote class="twitter-tweet"> <p dir="ltr" lang="en">Ally Langdon is really trying to absolutely tear the Referendum down right now <a href="https://twitter.com/ACurrentAffair9?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">@ACurrentAffair9</a>. Disgraceful. Absolutely so one sided questioning. </p> <p>Australia severely lacks middle of the road media coverage.</p> <p>— PiesMag (@PiesMag) <a href="https://twitter.com/PiesMag/status/1696813546364088546?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">August 30, 2023</a></p></blockquote> <blockquote class="twitter-tweet"> <p dir="ltr" lang="en">Ally Langdon clearly voting no for the voice to parliament. Constantly cutting off the Prime Minister, aggressive interview, utterly ignorant and badgering. What Is she so angry about and why is she on her high horse with the man who runs the country? <a href="https://twitter.com/9NewsQueensland?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">@9newsqueensland</a>…</p> <p>— GirlScoutCookies (@Girlscout_cuki) <a href="https://twitter.com/Girlscout_cuki/status/1696816812896477505?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">August 30, 2023</a></p></blockquote> <p dir="ltr">Despite the online opposition for the interview, many came out in support of Langdon’s questioning, saying she asked exactly the right questions to clarify the purpose of the Voice, and how it would be put into practice. </p> <p dir="ltr">Nine’s Director of News and Current Affairs, Darren Wick, backed Langdon, telling <em><a href="https://www.news.com.au/entertainment/tv/current-affairs/allison-langdons-a-current-affair-interview-with-anthony-albanese-divides-viewers/news-story/19875cc1d9668b845ac019efc116a737" target="_blank" rel="noopener">news.com.au</a></em>, “Ally did an excellent and professional job by asking the questions that the majority of Australians have long wanted answered.”</p> <p dir="ltr"><em>Image credits: A Current Affair</em></p>

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Queen and Princess heading down under for Women's World Cup final

<p>Queen Letizia of Spain is set to make a journey Down Under to witness the climactic finale of the FIFA Women's World Cup in Sydney.</p> <p>Her Majesty, married to King Felipe VI, will grace the occasion by attending the highly anticipated match featuring Spain and England at Stadium Australia.</p> <p>Accompanied by her youngest daughter Sophia, Queen Letizia's presence has been confirmed by the Royal Spanish Football Federation (RFEF), injecting a burst of energy into Spain's team as they face off against England's Lionesses in a bid for victory.</p> <p>In contrast, Prince William, who holds the position of president within England's football governing body, is not anticipated to undertake the transcontinental voyage. Despite having assumed the role of Football Association president in 2005, <em>The Telegraph UK</em> suggests he won't be travelling to Australia for the decisive match.</p> <p>Formal communication regarding Prince William's plans is yet to emerge from Kensington Palace.</p> <p>Amid swirling rumors of a potential separation from King Felipe VI, Queen Letizia has remained in the public eye. Her recent vacations alongside the Spanish royal family haven't quelled speculations concerning her marriage, which continue to cast a shadow over her, potentially impacting her role within the monarchy.</p> <p>Of notable significance is Princess Leonor, the offspring of Queen Letizia and King Felipe VI, who has garnered substantial attention for her military training in Zaragoza and her imminent transition into adulthood.</p> <p>As the heir apparent, Princess Leonor's ascendancy to adulthood raises discussions about her potential to assume a pivotal role in the monarchy, potentially succeeding Queen Letizia in the event of King Felipe VI's passing or abdication.</p> <p>These forthcoming months mark a period of temporary respite for Queen Letizia, as she enjoys her royal status without the looming spectre of potential replacement by her daughter.</p> <p>Notwithstanding these considerations, Queen Letizia remains the legitimate queen of Spain during King Felipe VI's reign. Nevertheless, the spectre of her replacement, potentially by Princess Leonor, remains a possibility. Insights suggest that King Felipe VI is actively preparing Princess Leonor for her future role as the Queen of Spain through rigorous military training and adherence to established protocols.</p> <p><em>Images: Spanish Football Federation</em></p>

International Travel

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The "happiest place on Earth" heading Down Under

<p>Australia could be getting its first Disneyland theme park, after one state capital claim they have the "perfect spot for it". </p> <p>Melbourne Lord Mayor Sally Capp has thrown her support behind the idea of a Down Under Disney, while also pitching the perfect location. </p> <p>“As Australia’s capital city of fun, of course we should have a Disney theme park in Melbourne. We’ve even got the perfect spot for it – Fishermans Bend,” Ms Capp told the <em>Herald Sun</em>.</p> <p>“We saw with the Firefly Zipline just how much Melburnians love a thrilling ride. At Fishermans Bend, exhilarating roller-coasters could soar over the Yarra as part of a Disneyland, Magic Kingdom or Animal Kingdom."</p> <p>“Melbourne also offers visitors the best tourism experience available in Victoria, from world-class hotels, unbeatable retail offerings and some of the best food and drink in Australia."</p> <p>“I know a Disney theme park in our municipality would be a huge hit with residents — myself included — visitors, students and traders.”</p> <p>Another piece of land has been floated for the location, with a prime spot north of Geelong, 30 minutes from the CBD, seeming to be a more achievable spot for a theme park. </p> <p>A third site has also been proposed, with David Fox, the son of billionaire trucking magnate Lindsey Fox, confirming an entertainment precinct is already earmarked for the huge block of vacant land near Avalon Airport.</p> <p>“There’s an entertainment precinct that we’ve defined. I wouldn’t say (for a) Disneyland at this moment in time, but anything is possible,” Mr Fox said.</p> <p><em>Image credits: Getty Images </em></p>

Domestic Travel

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Mystery object washed up on WA beach finally identified

<p>Ok space enthusiasts and beachcombers. Here's one for the X-Files – Intergalactic Travel edition.</p> <p>Picture this: A strange and baffling object, looking like it's straight out of a sci-fi flick, decided to take a little trip to Green Head beach, about 250 kilometres north of Perth on the pristine WA coastline.</p> <p>As soon as the locals caught sight of this extraterrestrial-looking thingamajig, the news spread like wildfire, and it made international headlines faster than a speeding rocket, with all kinds of fascinating theories popping up as to what on <em>Earth</em> (or not on Earth) it could be.</p> <p>Was it a UFO? A top-secret government experiment gone awry? Well, turns out it was nothing that exciting. The Australian Space Agency put on their Sherlock Holmes hats and deduced that this enigmatic piece of debris probably came from a satellite launch vehicle. Eureka! Case closed!</p> <p>Of course, when something weird and otherworldly shows up on your doorstep, you can't be too careful. So, the local authorities played it safe and put the object under police guard for an entire week. (Better safe than sorry, right?)</p> <p>And who needs a red carpet when you have a front-end loader to transport your newfound cosmic artifact? The experts were summoned to figure out where this space junk came from, and they concluded it was most likely a fuel tank from some rocket launched by the Indian Space Research Organisation. </p> <p>Professor Alice Gorman from Flinders University explained to <a href="https://www.abc.net.au/news/2023-07-31/australian-space-agency-identifies-space-junk-green-head/102669472" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ABC News</a> that this fuel containment vessel was meant to fall off after launch. And it turns out that statistically, we've been pretty lucky not to have had more collisions with falling rocket parts. Imagine explaining that to your insurance company? "A rocket booster landed on my house. Is that covered?"</p> <p>But here comes the tricky part: What to do with all of this space garbage? Should they ship it back to India like some interstellar postcard, or leave it Down Under as an intergalactic souvenir?</p> <p>While India is technically (and legally) responsible for their space debris, they could decide to gift it to Australia if they so choose. It could be like an exotic space decoration for the country - "The Land of Kangaroos and Rocket Wreckage."</p> <p>Even better, the Green Head community itself appear to have come up with a few fabulous ideas. Forget the Sydney Opera House: let's make the space debris a tourist attraction! Move over, Eiffel Tower - we've got our own piece of space history right here.</p> <p>The WA Premier even suggested storing it next to space debris from NASA's Skylab space station (remember that?) in some kind of attempt to build a cosmic cabinet of curiosities. </p> <p>Of course, the local council is also very keen on keeping this celestial treasure. They're hoping the Indian government won't come back to claim it, to the point that everyone in the surrounding Shire of Coorow is buzzing with excitement over the possibility of having their very own space souvenir to draw crowds of star trekkers.</p> <p>And so while the mystery of the object on the beach has been solved, the debate over its fate is just beginning. Will it become a star attraction in a local park? Or will it be shipped off to India like an interplanetary package return? Only time will tell.</p> <p><em>Images: Nine News</em></p>

Travel Trouble

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Grant and Chezzi Denyer head up all-star cast in new show

<p> The celebrity cast for Channel 10’s 2023 <em>The Amazing Race Australia</em> season has been revealed, with 11 teams set to take off on a thrilling journey across the globe. </p> <p>Beau Ryan will return as host, overseeing the contestants as they race for victory, and a $100,000 prize to hand to their chosen charity, in a race described as “heading in a new direction”, with twists and turns at every stop along the way.</p> <p>The 11 duos set to compete are bringing a wide range of skill sets to the race, with stars from sports to entertainment, comedy, and music strapping on their running shoes. </p> <p dir="ltr">Grant Denyer and his wife, Chezzi Denyer, are one of those 11 teams, with the pair joking that the whole competition will be more like a holiday from their kids than anything else - though Chezzi added that she’s also looking forward to their daughters seeing her “kick butt” on screen. As for their charity, they’ve selected Lifeline Central West.</p> <p>Emma Watkins and her sister, Hayley Watkins, are excited to spend some time together over the course of their adventure, as well as “meeting the people that we get to see and the different countries” - especially for Hayley, who hasn’t had the opportunity to do a lot of travel. They’ll be racing to raise money for the Leonie Jackson Memorial Fund. </p> <p>Peter Rowsthorn will be racing alongside his daughter, Frankie Rowsthorn, hoping that their humour will win over allies, while promising a barrel of laughs along the way. They’ll be racing for a cause close to their hearts, All Stars for Autism, as Peter explained “my grandson has autism, so we’re doing it for him.”</p> <p>Jana Pittman will be keeping it in the family too, racing with her son Cornelis Rawlinson. The former Olympian is excited to have quality time with Cornelis - the eldest of her six children - and feels honoured to have been asked to participate. Meanwhile, he has other priorities, with his sights firmly set on “the food”. They’ll be competing on behalf of The Royal Hospital for Women.</p> <p>Darren McMullen and his nephew, Tristan Dougan, will be joining the others, and promise a foolproof plan to get them through - even if they aren’t quite able to agree on who’s the brains behind the entire operation. They’ve selected Feel the Magic as their charity, noting that the children involved are “an inspiration for all of us.”</p> <p>Dane Simpson will be joined by his dad, Bow Simpson, as Dane looks to showcase the man who pops up so often throughout his comedy routines, certain that Australians everywhere are going to fall in love with him. They’ll be racing to win the $100,000 for the Dharriwaa Elders Group Incorporated.</p> <p>Alli Simpson and her mum, Angie Simpson, are another team racing to raise funds for a cause that means a lot to their family - Dementia Australia. As Alli explained, “my grandma, my dad's mum Chrissie, has gone down really fast with dementia in the last few years. It's been really difficult for us to watch. We just want to do as much as we can to prevent other families [from] feeling the pain that we do."</p> <p dir="ltr">Bec Judd will have her sister, Kate Twigley, at her side for the journey, bringing their competitive spirit and excitement to do it “together as sisters” to the competition. They’ll be racing on behalf of Impatient Advocacy - A Nicole Cooper Foundation.</p> <p>George Mladenov is no stranger to the world of reality TV competition - though his sister, Pamela Mladenov, may be a fresh face. George is sure they’ll bring drama to the screen, as they race for the Bankstown Women's Health Centre.</p> <p dir="ltr">Ben Gillies and his wife, Jackie Gillies, are hoping that the race experience will bring them closer, and teach them how to “live in the moment”. Self-confessed competitive souls, they have their sights set on the grand prize, which they hope to bring home to the Moira Kelly Creating Hope Foundation. </p> <p>And last but not least, Harry Jowsey is bringing his best friend, Teddy Briggs, along for the ride. And while they don’t expect to be “the best at this”, they’ve guaranteed that viewers are in for a fun time with their antics, and hope to bring some money to Beyond Blue with their efforts.</p> <p><em>Images: Ten </em></p>

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Mysterious liquid turns popular rock pool green

<p>A mysterious liquid has turned a popular public rock pool at Cronulla beach fluorescent green.</p> <p>The liquid, believed to be a natural fluorescent dye, fluorescein, was seen pouring into the usually clear waters of the pool on Friday.</p> <p>The dye is often used to help experts track the flow of water to identify any leaks and has low toxicity, which means it is harmless despite the daunting colour.</p> <p>“We believe the discolouration is likely to be fluorescein dye, which is commonly used in plumbing/drain testing and dissipates quickly once diluted,” a spokesperson for the New South Wales Environmental Protection Authority said.</p> <p>According to Australian dye manufacturer, Tintex, the dye is also used to “locate leaks in plumbing, tracing pipe locations, detect drain damage and water pathways,” and is odourless and non-toxic to the environment.</p> <p>However, in a safety data sheet, Tintex has also warned about the potential health effects which include eye irritation, skin irritation, irritation of the digestive tract and respiratory tract irritation.</p> <p>Many locals are cautious despite the claim that the dye is mostly harmless.</p> <p>One user wrote on a Facebook page for Cronulla locals that dye was “legal to use in a stormwater drain”.</p> <p>“Doesn’t look good whatever it is,” another responded, while other cautious residents replied that they wouldn’t swim in the area until the dye fully dissipates.</p> <p><em>Images: Facebook</em></p>

Travel Trouble

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"A true legend": Jane Fonda pegs award at director's head

<p>Film icon Jane Fonda is known to entertain the masses, and her cheeky antics at the 2023 Cannes Film Festival saw her do just that.</p> <p>While hosting Palme d’Or Awards on May 27, Fonda, 85, called up director Justine Triet who had won the award for <em>Anatomy of the Fall</em>, but it was Fonda’s deliverance of said award that had viewers in stitches.</p> <p>The 85-year-old tried to get Triet's attention, but after multiple attempts of calling out to her, Fonda decided to throw the scroll at the director’s back.</p> <p>When the scroll hit Triet on the back of the head and fell to the floor, she didn’t appear to notice.</p> <p><em>The Book Club</em> star’s unconventional passing of the award sent Twitter users into a frenzy, with many praising her, calling her a “queen” with an “excellent shot.”</p> <p>"A true legend." one person wrote.</p> <p>"This just made my day! 😂😂😂" another said.</p> <blockquote class="twitter-tweet"> <p dir="ltr" lang="en">favorite cannes moment is officially jane fonda throwing the palme d'or certificate at justine triet because she forgot to take it <a href="https://t.co/6tv8TEj8zw">pic.twitter.com/6tv8TEj8zw</a></p> <p>— flo ¨̮ (@astralbarnes) <a href="https://twitter.com/astralbarnes/status/1662568221931601920?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">May 27, 2023</a></p></blockquote> <p>Fonda hit the red carpet dazzled in black sequins. Her black gown was faired with a chain necklace and matching earrings.</p> <p>The beloved actress has been documenting her Cannes weekend via Instagram, sharing photos of herself with Hollywood greats Eva Longoria and Kate Winslet, as well as a snippet of her accommodation.</p> <p>Fonda’s attendance comes five months into her remission after <a href="https://www.oversixty.com.au/health/caring/jane-fonda-reassures-fans-after-cancer-diagnosis" target="_blank" rel="noopener">announcing her non-Hodgkin's lymphoma diagnosis</a> in September 2022.</p> <p>She revealed the happy news on her Instagram, titling it "BEST BIRTHDAY PRESENT EVER!!!"</p> <p>”Last week I was told by my oncologist that my cancer is in remission and I can discontinue chemo," she wrote. "I am feeling so blessed, so fortunate."</p> <p><em>Image credit: Getty</em></p>

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How to make your next holiday better for the environment

<p><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/brendan-canavan-228682">Brendan Canavan</a>, <em><a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/university-of-nottingham-1192">University of Nottingham</a></em></p> <p>Being an environmentally friendly tourist can be challenging. Tourism is an industry that brings many <a href="https://www.unwto.org/EU-guidebook-on-sustainable-tourism-for-development">negative environmental impacts</a> – our pleasure often comes at the expense of local habitats or wildlife.</p> <p>Maya Bay on Thailand’s uninhabited Phi Phi Leh island became famous as the location of the 2000 Hollywood movie The Beach. But this led to rapid growth in visitors to the bay – as many as 8,000 a day at its peak – and put enormous strain on the bay’s natural habitats.</p> <p>In 2018, the bay was <a href="https://edition.cnn.com/travel/article/maya-bay-thailand-recovery-c2e-spc-intl/index.html">closed to tourists</a> for four years to let its coral reefs and wildlife recover.</p> <p>But tourism can also be an inspiring way to connect with oneself, with others and with new places. As tourists, we can learn, share and contribute to positive environmental practices.</p> <p>As a tourist, you also have influence. The money you spend, the social interactions you have and the resources you consume all <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0261517715300224?casa_token=TaXMOLW6Sp4AAAAA:PEnSG1AaAZ-MiuTNZ1wJfLRrzaNVIbaBsk1cKsP8M-_6KjruLO9tp09BqqzGnJTIZbN8_CoP4Q">help to shape an area</a>.</p> <p>So here are four pieces of advice for making your next holiday better for the environment.</p> <h2>Spend locally</h2> <p>We’ve all heard variations on the mantra “<a href="https://cleanisland.org/history-of-the-leave-only-footprints-initiative/#:%7E:text=%E2%80%9CTake%20only%20memories%2C%20leave%20only,the%20Leave%20Only%20Footprints%20program.">take only memories, leave only footprints</a>”. This message of less consumption and lower impact is a good ethos for environmentally sensitive tourism. The first thing to do is think about how you can leave more positive footprints behind.</p> <p>An excellent way to make the most of your economic footprint is to stay and shop in <a href="https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/09669580802359293?casa_token=eNeLWWRPHxIAAAAA:9bT4S5-0O5b2JQWrYKgmjtDxrZzlv0P-H-9T2SoWT1fX6tFRkoVenNNcfmJbHV9ebhF2kP7XIEgz">independent businesses</a>. These businesses tend to pay local taxes and are owned by and employ local people. More of the money you spend stays in the immediate area as a result.</p> <p>Where tourist money directly benefits local people and businesses, their support for conservation is <a href="https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/26069456.pdf?casa_token=rdKkHk5QviUAAAAA:2ZCqsGG1f-2wFTIdmptbrJDVo8iPjYnam7QPdHXviRy_e0wA7YMY7fc0Qm1smIII4cg6_WriJ1OQwPvxMibmeHQxnO81NPd9jwoeVRudUS2TVv2TNeg">often encouraged</a>. Tourists <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0261517709000120#sec5">visiting rhino sanctuaries</a> in Botswana, for example, bring income and support jobs. In 2010, the country’s Khama Rhino Sanctuary employed 26 permanent staff and many more casual labourers.</p> <p>This economic security can, in turn, prompt local people to appreciate the importance of protecting vulnerable animal species like rhinos. <a href="https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09669582.2021.1932927?casa_token=rffO3wgsu6UAAAAA:7dounwsgVunXCW4-NERDNDX9Ks_OVfa3z5TfZDojAdiVVKuXbU52_3DnRNfALNjMCW0PzGPPOu0MQQ">Separate research</a> on people living around Kenya’s Maasai Mara nature reserve found that people whose livelihoods were dependent on tourism were more likely to support efforts to conserve local wildlife.</p> <figure class="align-center "><img src="https://images.theconversation.com/files/524360/original/file-20230504-19-znuosc.jpg?ixlib=rb-1.1.0&amp;q=45&amp;auto=format&amp;w=754&amp;fit=clip" sizes="(min-width: 1466px) 754px, (max-width: 599px) 100vw, (min-width: 600px) 600px, 237px" srcset="https://images.theconversation.com/files/524360/original/file-20230504-19-znuosc.jpg?ixlib=rb-1.1.0&amp;q=45&amp;auto=format&amp;w=600&amp;h=400&amp;fit=crop&amp;dpr=1 600w, https://images.theconversation.com/files/524360/original/file-20230504-19-znuosc.jpg?ixlib=rb-1.1.0&amp;q=30&amp;auto=format&amp;w=600&amp;h=400&amp;fit=crop&amp;dpr=2 1200w, https://images.theconversation.com/files/524360/original/file-20230504-19-znuosc.jpg?ixlib=rb-1.1.0&amp;q=15&amp;auto=format&amp;w=600&amp;h=400&amp;fit=crop&amp;dpr=3 1800w, https://images.theconversation.com/files/524360/original/file-20230504-19-znuosc.jpg?ixlib=rb-1.1.0&amp;q=45&amp;auto=format&amp;w=754&amp;h=503&amp;fit=crop&amp;dpr=1 754w, https://images.theconversation.com/files/524360/original/file-20230504-19-znuosc.jpg?ixlib=rb-1.1.0&amp;q=30&amp;auto=format&amp;w=754&amp;h=503&amp;fit=crop&amp;dpr=2 1508w, https://images.theconversation.com/files/524360/original/file-20230504-19-znuosc.jpg?ixlib=rb-1.1.0&amp;q=15&amp;auto=format&amp;w=754&amp;h=503&amp;fit=crop&amp;dpr=3 2262w" alt="Two white rhinos drinking from a pond." /><figcaption><span class="caption">Two white rhinos at Khama Rhino Sanctuary, Botswana.</span> <span class="attribution"><a class="source" href="https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/white-rhinoceros-ceratotherium-simum-squarelipped-khama-2060738441">Al Carrera/Shutterstock</a></span></figcaption></figure> <h2>Tread lightly</h2> <p>Tourism creates waste and uses up resources. Treading carefully will minimise the environmental impact you have on your holiday destination.</p> <p>A simple way to lower your environmental footprint is to use fewer resources at every stage of your holiday. A single tourist uses <a href="https://www.e-unwto.org/doi/pdf/10.18111/9789284414529">300 litres</a> of water in their holiday accommodation on average each night. Reusing towels, flushing the toilet less and shortening your shower time can all help to reduce demand for water resources.</p> <p>Thinking about the footprints you leave as a tourist is a useful mindset. You may even become more aware of the positive legacy you can leave behind.</p> <p>Learn about the local area and the environmental issues that matter there. If habitat loss is a problem, contribute to local organisations that support conservation. Organisations like the <a href="https://www.nationaltrust.org.uk/holidays">National Trust</a> even offer holidays in the UK that help to fund their work.</p> <h2>Place matters</h2> <p>Tourism shifts you away from the familiar and gives you <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0160738312001211?casa_token=zHTCleS_F3kAAAAA:jWMOOtEJzH8OXySUqafP5Z7koLFOtNSJ2Ik4ncoA9wPCHTW-1MRNJJwRvYtoopoSqCwTRm_TeA">space for self-reflection</a>. Research has found that people have been <a href="https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02508281.2017.1342349?role=button&amp;needAccess=true&amp;journalCode=rtrr20">inspired by travel to make life changes</a> such as relocating or shifting career.</p> <p>Many keen rock climbers, for instance, adopt a <a href="https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/17450101.2014.977667?casa_token=gCsYfe0mSDkAAAAA:q8f6HbQ9rlwXS5_DGl3De1XUnHXX6U0EC3QUNz65pFivUgPo7RDH0-zGXvspjrTrv73FKkouDPM-">minimalist and mobile lifestyle</a>. <a href="https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/14616688.2012.762691?needAccess=true">One study</a> on climbers’ lifestyles in the US showed that the challenges of life on the road, gatherings at campgrounds and the considerable amount of time spent in nature can be enriching.</p> <p>Rock climbers’ lifestyles are inspired by and connected to natural settings. And many alternative types of tourism are too. These tourists can become powerful advocates for the protection of the places they care deeply about. Surf tourists, for example, have driven <a href="https://www.sas.org.uk/">various campaigns</a> against the discharge of sewage into UK bathing waters.</p> <p>You and those you travel with can be similar cheerleaders for the places you care about. Join organisations fighting for their conservation, contribute to their sustainable development and share your appreciation of these places with others.</p> <h2>Stay curious</h2> <p>A final thing you can do as a tourist is to keep exploring. It can be tempting to stay in a <a href="https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/40970087.pdf?casa_token=zGlcyUgr_JcAAAAA:TzIuU8wrbvXyjAxawpea1Nw35y-5DSZX-MShnpndR4iEwzOQqCul3Hn61SFdotC4dO3hMZ6ddpOI-O0v45K7Jwo6TY9I4FVbUaE8QMuGo7qsBFbvbXE">tourist bubble</a> and not leave the confines of your resort or stick with familiar travel groups and activities.</p> <p>Cruises are a classic example of bubble tourism. The places visited do not really matter; the floating hotel is the main attraction.</p> <p>But cruise tourism rarely benefits local populations and brings <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0261517717302418?casa_token=dz_gzPmnVTsAAAAA:o6WggzlegsnTGIh9__NvL7POYKzGB3pHd44TNswicbl0sOSc5uTUYG-G_qZroQ3gaQVchZR5Gw">significant negative environmental impacts</a>. In the Trujillo Bay area of Honduras, for example, <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0261517717302418?casa_token=DDSyzNJhU5sAAAAA:vqMQqzyKJMXHLZmVfcuYesAmc-0KsqzR8GdX97r0AzecrnXCRPNMC7_lHBKyqYKzLbMoHh83zQ#sec7">increases in garbage and sewage</a> have been reported since commercial cruise tourism began operating in the area in 2014.</p> <figure class="align-center "><img src="https://images.theconversation.com/files/524072/original/file-20230503-28-w8obuy.jpg?ixlib=rb-1.1.0&amp;q=45&amp;auto=format&amp;w=754&amp;fit=clip" sizes="(min-width: 1466px) 754px, (max-width: 599px) 100vw, (min-width: 600px) 600px, 237px" srcset="https://images.theconversation.com/files/524072/original/file-20230503-28-w8obuy.jpg?ixlib=rb-1.1.0&amp;q=45&amp;auto=format&amp;w=600&amp;h=402&amp;fit=crop&amp;dpr=1 600w, https://images.theconversation.com/files/524072/original/file-20230503-28-w8obuy.jpg?ixlib=rb-1.1.0&amp;q=30&amp;auto=format&amp;w=600&amp;h=402&amp;fit=crop&amp;dpr=2 1200w, https://images.theconversation.com/files/524072/original/file-20230503-28-w8obuy.jpg?ixlib=rb-1.1.0&amp;q=15&amp;auto=format&amp;w=600&amp;h=402&amp;fit=crop&amp;dpr=3 1800w, https://images.theconversation.com/files/524072/original/file-20230503-28-w8obuy.jpg?ixlib=rb-1.1.0&amp;q=45&amp;auto=format&amp;w=754&amp;h=505&amp;fit=crop&amp;dpr=1 754w, https://images.theconversation.com/files/524072/original/file-20230503-28-w8obuy.jpg?ixlib=rb-1.1.0&amp;q=30&amp;auto=format&amp;w=754&amp;h=505&amp;fit=crop&amp;dpr=2 1508w, https://images.theconversation.com/files/524072/original/file-20230503-28-w8obuy.jpg?ixlib=rb-1.1.0&amp;q=15&amp;auto=format&amp;w=754&amp;h=505&amp;fit=crop&amp;dpr=3 2262w" alt="A beach full of tourists from the cruise ship moored nearby." /><figcaption><span class="caption">A cruise ship moored near Mahogany Bay beach, Honduras.</span> <span class="attribution"><a class="source" href="https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/mahogany-bay-beach-full-tourists-cruise-1647866578">Ramunas Bruzas/Shutterstock</a></span></figcaption></figure> <p>Similar concerns have prompted calls to restrict cruise tourism in popular European destinations like <a href="https://www.theguardian.com/world/2022/jul/25/cruise-passengers-shuttled-into-venice-by-motor-boat-to-dodge-big-ships-ban">Venice</a>, <a href="https://www.euronews.com/travel/2022/09/01/stop-cruises-50000-people-sign-petition-to-regulate-polluting-ships-in-marseille">Marseille</a> and <a href="https://www.theguardian.com/world/2023/apr/09/a-plague-of-locusts-barcelona-battles-port-authorities-to-curb-cruise-tourists">Barcelona</a>. In 2022, more than 50,000 people signed a petition to ban cruise ships from Marseille.</p> <p>Going beyond familiar or fashionable tourist bubbles can help you avoid such negative associations. <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0261517709001113?casa_token=SHXc1sqnFOkAAAAA:T8KwGbxBT_jHQv1RMWfJaQagU4C_XnnOKxxwNqODHpboL6YRkzRsr-C9W6mgRHQDa-M6vcAYAA#sec7">Short-haul city breaks</a> are a more environmentally friendly option.</p> <p>Travellers to these destinations are more likely to use means of transportation that are associated with <a href="https://www.gov.uk/government/statistics/transport-and-environment-statistics-autumn-2021/transport-and-environment-statistics-autumn-2021#:%7E:text=The%20biggest%20contributors%20to%20this,of%20emissions%2C%2019%20MtCO2e%20">less CO₂ emissions</a> than long-haul travel, such as <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0959652613005131?casa_token=INw7hbOMnDEAAAAA:Do8AzrmSnJZtOHdqWtc7QLFhgrWF520ej0-_gt0rcZmhzyLGT5DSS3SdmRR6tnxC3qtOHXIThQ">trains or coaches</a>. And in urban areas, their activities are likely to take place in a concentrated geographical area.</p> <p>Thinking about the footprints you leave and the memories you take can help you to become a more environmentally aware tourist. Leave positive imprints behind, tread carefully, put yourself out there and keep exploring.</p> <p>This is a mantra to adopt and share with your travel groups to get the most out of your holiday experiences while simultaneously reducing your impact on the planet.<!-- Below is The Conversation's page counter tag. Please DO NOT REMOVE. --><img style="border: none !important; box-shadow: none !important; margin: 0 !important; max-height: 1px !important; max-width: 1px !important; min-height: 1px !important; min-width: 1px !important; opacity: 0 !important; outline: none !important; padding: 0 !important;" src="https://counter.theconversation.com/content/203445/count.gif?distributor=republish-lightbox-basic" alt="The Conversation" width="1" height="1" /><!-- End of code. If you don't see any code above, please get new code from the Advanced tab after you click the republish button. The page counter does not collect any personal data. More info: https://theconversation.com/republishing-guidelines --></p> <p><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/brendan-canavan-228682">Brendan Canavan</a>, Senior Lecturer in Marketing, <em><a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/university-of-nottingham-1192">University of Nottingham</a></em></p> <p><em>This article is republished from <a href="https://theconversation.com">The Conversation</a> under a Creative Commons license. Read the <a href="https://theconversation.com/how-to-make-your-next-holiday-better-for-the-environment-203445">original article</a>.</em></p> <p><em>Images: Getty</em></p>

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Property from a galaxy far, far away heads to the market

<p dir="ltr">The time has come for dreams to be realised, particularly if you’re someone with a passion for outer space - or more specifically, a galaxy far, far, away - and want to live among the stars while keeping your feet planted firmly on the ground. </p> <p dir="ltr">Approved plans for a <em>Star Wars </em>light cruiser-inspired property are heading to the auction block, with a Melbourne-based IT specialist launching his 131 Pipers Creek Road campaign on May 4 - better known as ‘Star Wars Day’. </p> <p dir="ltr">With a price guide of $1.05m-$1.15m, the 2.42ha block in Kyneston is perfect for any buyer with enough passion to carry out Shyam Avatapalli’s galactic-level plans. </p> <p dir="ltr">As Avatapalli explained, his intention was to either build the home and sell it, or just to sell it along with the appropriate permits. </p> <p dir="ltr">“It’s inspired by one of the space ships from one of the older films and The Mandalorian TV series, called a<em> Star Wars</em> light cruiser,” he told <em>Herald Sun</em>. </p> <p dir="ltr">“I’ve always been a <em>Star Wars </em>fan and always like to think outside of the box when designing or building something.”</p> <p dir="ltr">It isn’t the first unique approach to property planning that Avatapalli has taken, with his own home in Donvale boasting a kitchen that also draws heavy inspiration from<em> Star Wars</em>. </p> <p dir="ltr">The potential Kyneston home’s location was selected for its otherworldly and treeless landscape, with Avatapalli even securing a permit for “a low cost culvert crossing” over the block’s creek, along with those for the property itself. </p> <p dir="ltr">The five-bedroom home was designed in collaboration with an architect, and would feature Colorbond steel as well as a hallway resembling one aboard a fictional spacecraft, and three water tanks that may draw Boeing 747 jet engine’s to mind, as they were inspired by the real-life planes.</p> <p dir="ltr">As for where the hallway’s ‘middle cylinder’ might come from, Avatarpalli intends to put the buyer in contact with an art dealer who could help them to get their hands on a jet engine “built by Rolls Royce in the 1970s”. According to Avatarpalli, it would even be from a “real British Airways flight”.</p> <p dir="ltr">As Ray White’s Brendan Milner said, “the sky was the limit” for the property’s next proud owner, as well as noting that they were likely to be someone searching for “a bit of a wow factor, one-off property, with eccentric taste that goes with the design …</p> <p dir="ltr">“Because it’s a spaceship anyone with an otherworldly fascination would definitely have an interest.”</p> <p dir="ltr"><em>Images: realestate.com.au </em></p>

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Hit your head while playing sport? Here’s what just happened to your brain

<p>It’s Friday night, your team is playing, and scores are nail-bitingly close. A player intercepts the ball, and bam! A player tackles his opponent to the ground. Trainers and doctors gather nervously while the commentators wait for confirmation: a concussion, mild traumatic brain injury, head knock, strike, tap, bump, blow … there are many terms for it.</p> <p>How to prevent and treat such injuries is the subject to a <a href="https://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/Senate/Community_Affairs/Headtraumainsport">Senate inquiry</a>, with public hearings this week.</p> <p>But what exactly are these injuries? What’s going on in the brain?</p> <h2>What is concussion?</h2> <p>Concussion is a form of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Concussion typically falls at the milder end of the spectrum, and so is often called mild TBI.</p> <p>Concussions happen most often when the head directly hits against something. But it can also happen without head impact, when a blow to the body causes the head to move quickly.</p> <p>The brain is a soft organ in a hard case, floating in a thin layer of <a href="https://medlineplus.gov/lab-tests/cerebrospinal-fluid-csf-analysis/">cerebrospinal fluid</a>. The brain can be damaged away from the site of impact for this reason, as it bounces with force within the skull.</p> <p>Concussions that happen during sport can be complex because the head often rotates as the person falls. This “<a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3979340/">rotational acceleration</a>” can cause more damage to the brain. This is especially the case for cells in the long tracts of white matter responsible for relaying signals around the brain.</p> <p>As well as causing initial damage to brain cells at the time of injury, concussion sets off a cascade of <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4479139/">chemical and biological changes</a>. These occur within minutes and may last for days or even weeks after concussion.</p> <p>Cell membranes become permeable (more leaky), causing an imbalance of brain chemicals inside and outside cells. Cellular functions shift into overdrive to try to restore balance, using more fuel in the form of glucose. At the same time, blood flow to the brain is often reduced, resulting in a mismatch between energy supply and demand.</p> <p>The structural scaffolding of cells in the white matter may begin to weaken or break, preventing or reducing the ability of cells to communicate.</p> <p>Sensing danger, cells from the <a href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28910616/">immune system</a> begin to migrate to the brain in an attempt to stem the damage, spouting chemical signals to recruit other inflammatory cells to the sites of injury.</p> <p>These initial responses to concussion typically resolve over time, but the recovery period may be different for each person, and may persist even after symptoms go away.</p> <h2>What are the symptoms?</h2> <p>Concussion <a href="https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/concussion/symptoms-causes/syc-20355594">symptoms</a> can differ depending on the person and the circumstances of injury.</p> <p>Some people have more obvious symptoms like loss of consciousness, vomiting and confusion; others may have headaches, problems with their vision, or thinking and concentration. Some people may have one symptom while others have many. Some people’s symptoms may be severe, and others may have only mild symptoms.</p> <p>So diagnosing and managing concussion can be difficult. Most people who have a concussion will find their symptoms subside within days or weeks. But around <a href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26918481/">20% of people</a> will have persistent symptoms beyond three months after their concussion.</p> <p>Ongoing symptoms can make it harder to perform at work or school, to socialise with friends and to maintain relationships. Scientists don’t know why recoveries are different for different people. We have no way to <a href="https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/11/5/e046460.info">predict</a> who will recover from concussion and who won’t.</p> <h2>How about repeat blows to the head?</h2> <p>People who play contact sports are more likely to have multiple concussions over a playing career. Higher numbers of concussions tend to mean <a href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28387556/">worse symptoms and slower recovery</a> for subsequent concussions.</p> <p>This indicates the brain doesn’t get used to concussions, and each concussion is likely to impart additional damage.</p> <p>Emerging evidence suggests repeated concussions may lead to <a href="https://n.neurology.org/content/88/15/1400.short">ongoing changes</a> in people’s brain cell structure and function.</p> <p><a href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32326805/">Inflammation</a> may persist inside and outside the brain. Inflammation may also <a href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30535946/">cause or contribute</a> to someone developing symptoms, and long-term brain functional and structural changes.</p> <p>Prolonged symptoms and long-term brain changes may be worse in the long run for people who experience their concussions as <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6595074/">young adults</a> compared to people who have concussions as older adults.</p> <p>Scientists are also starting to find differences in <a href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30618335/">symptoms</a> and <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8596946/">brain alterations</a> in males and females. These could be related to newfound sex differences in the <a href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29104114/">scaffolding proteins</a> of male and female brains, making female brains more susceptible.</p> <h2>We’ve known about this for a long time</h2> <p>The long-term brain and behaviour changes resulting from repeated sports concussions have been reported since at least the <a href="https://www.bmj.com/content/1/3306/816">1920s</a>. Back then, it was seen in boxers and termed dementia pugilistica, or <a href="https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/article-abstract/260461">punch-drunk syndrome</a>.</p> <p>We now call this condition <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1934148211005296">chronic traumatic encephalopathy</a> (CTE). People found to have CTE don’t always experience severe symptoms. Instead, symptoms tend to emerge or worsen later in life, even decades after injury or at the end of a playing career.</p> <p>People also have <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8166432/">varied symptoms</a> that can sometimes be hard to measure, like confusion, impaired judgement and aggression. This has made diagnosis difficult while people are alive. We can only confirm CTE after someone dies, by detecting altered structural proteins of the brain in <a href="https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12024-023-00624-3">specific brain areas</a>.</p> <p>There is still a lot to learn about CTE, including the exact processes that cause it, and why some people will develop it and others won’t.</p> <h2>Concussion is common</h2> <p>Concussion is a common injury almost <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7048626/">30%</a> of us will experience in our lifetime.</p> <p>Although we have a lot still to learn, the current advice for people who experience concussion is to seek medical advice to help with initial management of symptoms and guide decisions on returning back to playing sports.</p> <p><em>This article originally appeared on <a href="https://theconversation.com/hit-your-head-while-playing-sport-heres-what-just-happened-to-your-brain-203038" target="_blank" rel="noopener">The Conversation</a>.</em></p> <p><em>Images: Getty</em></p>

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