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Sophie Delezio's adorable gender reveal

<p>Sophie Delezio and her fiancé, Joseph Salerno, have enjoyed a special baby shower with family and friends, where they revealed their baby's gender. </p> <p>The couple shared photos and videos to Instagram after the occasion and revealed that they are having a baby boy. </p> <p>"It's a…BOY!!," she told her followers. </p> <p>"We can't wait to welcome you to the world little man! Your mum and dad are so excited to meet you."</p> <p>The video clip starts off in black and white, and Salerno begins opening a small confetti cannon, as it pops open the video turns into colour and reveals the blue bits of paper. </p> <p>Delezio then run to her fiancé and dances around in excitement as she patted her baby bump. </p> <p>Later on in the day, the couple changed from their white outfits to blue for the remainder of the party. </p> <blockquote class="instagram-media" style="background: #FFF; border: 0; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: 0 0 1px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.5),0 1px 10px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.15); margin: 1px; max-width: 540px; min-width: 326px; padding: 0; width: calc(100% - 2px);" data-instgrm-captioned="" data-instgrm-permalink="https://www.instagram.com/reel/C9wYu57zGj8/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" data-instgrm-version="14"> <div style="padding: 16px;"> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: row; align-items: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 50%; flex-grow: 0; height: 40px; margin-right: 14px; width: 40px;"> </div> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: column; flex-grow: 1; justify-content: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; margin-bottom: 6px; width: 100px;"> </div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; width: 60px;"> </div> </div> </div> <div style="padding: 19% 0;"> </div> <div style="display: block; height: 50px; margin: 0 auto 12px; width: 50px;"> </div> <div style="padding-top: 8px;"> <div style="color: #3897f0; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: 550; line-height: 18px;">View this post on Instagram</div> </div> <div style="padding: 12.5% 0;"> </div> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: row; margin-bottom: 14px; align-items: center;"> <div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 50%; height: 12.5px; width: 12.5px; transform: translateX(0px) translateY(7px);"> </div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; height: 12.5px; transform: rotate(-45deg) translateX(3px) translateY(1px); width: 12.5px; flex-grow: 0; margin-right: 14px; margin-left: 2px;"> </div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 50%; height: 12.5px; width: 12.5px; transform: translateX(9px) translateY(-18px);"> </div> </div> <div style="margin-left: 8px;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 50%; flex-grow: 0; height: 20px; width: 20px;"> </div> <div style="width: 0; height: 0; border-top: 2px solid transparent; border-left: 6px solid #f4f4f4; border-bottom: 2px solid transparent; transform: translateX(16px) translateY(-4px) rotate(30deg);"> </div> </div> <div style="margin-left: auto;"> <div style="width: 0px; border-top: 8px solid #F4F4F4; border-right: 8px solid transparent; transform: translateY(16px);"> </div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; flex-grow: 0; height: 12px; width: 16px; transform: translateY(-4px);"> </div> <div style="width: 0; height: 0; border-top: 8px solid #F4F4F4; border-left: 8px solid transparent; transform: translateY(-4px) translateX(8px);"> </div> </div> </div> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: column; flex-grow: 1; justify-content: center; margin-bottom: 24px;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; margin-bottom: 6px; width: 224px;"> </div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; width: 144px;"> </div> </div> <p style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; line-height: 17px; margin-bottom: 0; margin-top: 8px; overflow: hidden; padding: 8px 0 7px; text-align: center; text-overflow: ellipsis; white-space: nowrap;"><a style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: 17px; text-decoration: none;" href="https://www.instagram.com/reel/C9wYu57zGj8/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" target="_blank" rel="noopener">A post shared by Sophie Delezio (@soph.delezio)</a></p> </div> </blockquote> <p>In another <a href="https://www.instagram.com/p/C9t15-9zxyI/?img_index=6" target="_blank" rel="noopener">post</a>, Delezio shared a few details from her baby shower, including a wall filled with the couple's baby pictures, and a photo from when they announced they were expecting. </p> <p>Delezio's followers took to the comments to congratulate the couple. </p> <p>"So happy for you beautiful girl ♥️" wrote one. </p> <p>"Aw so fabulous!! A precious little man 😍 congratulations," added another. </p> <p>"Little boys are the best 💙 Absolutely over the moon for you both, Your going to be amaaaazing parents," wrote a third. </p> <p>"Congratulations exciting news that you are expecting a precious baby boy so happy for you both," added a fourth. </p> <p>Delezio and Salerno are high school sweethearts and they announced their engagement in 2023 before revealing their pregnancy in April this year. </p> <p><em>Images: Instagram</em></p>

Family & Pets

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Longer appointments are just the start of tackling the gender pain gap. Here are 4 more things we can do

<div class="theconversation-article-body"> <p><em><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/michelle-oshea-457947">Michelle O'Shea</a>, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/western-sydney-university-1092">Western Sydney University</a>; <a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/hannah-adler-1533549">Hannah Adler</a>, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/griffith-university-828">Griffith University</a>; <a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/marilla-l-druitt-1533572">Marilla L. Druitt</a>, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/deakin-university-757">Deakin University</a>, and <a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/mike-armour-391382">Mike Armour</a>, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/western-sydney-university-1092">Western Sydney University</a></em></p> <p>Ahead of the federal budget, health minister Mark Butler <a href="https://www.abc.net.au/news/2024-05-10/endometriosis-australia-welcomes-govt-funding-for-endometriosis/103830392">last week announced</a> an investment of A$49.1 million to help women with endometriosis and complex gynaecological conditions such as chronic pelvic pain and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).</p> <p>From July 1 2025 <a href="https://www.health.gov.au/ministers/the-hon-mark-butler-mp/media/historic-medicare-changes-for-women-battling-endometriosis">two new items</a> will be added to the Medicare Benefits Schedule providing extended consultation times and higher rebates for specialist gynaecological care.</p> <p>The Medicare changes <a href="https://www1.racgp.org.au/newsgp/clinical/longer-consults-for-endometriosis-sufferers-on-the">will subsidise</a> $168.60 for a minimum of 45 minutes during a longer initial gynaecologist consultation, compared to the standard rate of $95.60. For follow-up consultations, Medicare will cover $84.35 for a minimum of 45 minutes, compared to the standard rate of $48.05.</p> <p>Currently, there’s <a href="https://www9.health.gov.au/mbs/fullDisplay.cfm?type=item&amp;q=104&amp;qt=item&amp;criteria=104">no specified time</a> for these initial or subsequent consultations.</p> <p>But while reductions to out-of-pocket medical expenses and extended specialist consultation times are welcome news, they’re only a first step in closing the gender pain gap.</p> <h2>Chronic pain affects more women</h2> <p>Globally, research has shown chronic pain (generally defined as pain that persists for <a href="https://www.healthdirect.gov.au/chronic-pain">more than three months</a>) disproportionately affects <a href="https://academic.oup.com/bja/article/111/1/52/331232?login=false">women</a>. Multiple biological and psychosocial processes likely contribute to this disparity, often called the gender pain gap.</p> <p>For example, chronic pain is frequently associated with conditions influenced by <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0304395914003868">hormones</a>, among other factors, such as endometriosis and <a href="https://theconversation.com/adenomyosis-causes-pain-heavy-periods-and-infertility-but-youve-probably-never-heard-of-it-104412">adenomyosis</a>. Chronic pelvic pain in women, regardless of the cause, can be debilitating and <a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-73389-2">negatively affect</a> every facet of life from social activities, to work and finances, to mental health and relationships.</p> <p>The gender pain gap is both rooted in and compounded by gender bias in medical research, treatment and social norms.</p> <p>The science that informs medicine – including the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease – has traditionally focused on men, thereby <a href="https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2015/apr/30/fda-clinical-trials-gender-gap-epa-nih-institute-of-medicine-cardiovascular-disease">failing to consider</a> the crucial impact of sex (biological) and gender (social) factors.</p> <p>When medical research adopts a “male as default” approach, this limits our understanding of pain conditions that predominantly affect women or how certain conditions affect men and women <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC10921746/">differently</a>. It also means intersex, trans and gender-diverse people are <a href="https://www.deakin.edu.au/about-deakin/news-and-media-releases/articles/world-class-centre-tackles-sex-and-gender-inequities-in-health-and-medicine">commonly excluded</a> from medical research and health care.</p> <p>Minimisation or dismissal of pain along with the <a href="https://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/3467067/">normalisation of menstrual pain</a> as just “part of being a woman” contribute to significant delays and misdiagnosis of women’s gynaecological and other health issues. Feeling dismissed, along with perceptions of stigma, can make women less likely <a href="https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s12905-024-03063-6">to seek help</a> in the future.</p> <h2>Inadequate medical care</h2> <p>Unfortunately, even when women with endometriosis do seek care, many <a href="https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1111/imj.15494?saml_referrer">aren’t satisfied</a>. This is understandable when medical advice includes being told to become pregnant to treat their <a href="https://bmcwomenshealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12905-023-02794-2">endometriosis</a>, despite <a href="https://academic.oup.com/humupd/article/24/3/290/4859612?login=false">no evidence</a> pregnancy reduces symptoms. Pregnancy should be an autonomous choice, not a treatment option.</p> <p>It’s unsurprising people look for information from other, often <a href="https://www.mdpi.com/2227-9032/12/1/121">uncredentialed</a>, sources. While online platforms including patient-led groups have provided women with new avenues of support, these forums should complement, rather than replace, <a href="https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/1460458215602939">information from a doctor</a>.</p> <p>Longer Medicare-subsidised appointments are an important acknowledgement of women and their individual health needs. At present, many women feel their consultations with a gynaecologist are <a href="https://www1.racgp.org.au/newsgp/clinical/longer-consults-for-endometriosis-sufferers-on-the">rushed</a>. These conversations, which often include coming to terms with a diagnosis and management plan, <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1496869/">take time</a>.</p> <h2>A path toward less pain</h2> <p>While extended consultation time and reduced out-of-pocket costs are a step in the right direction, they are only one part of a complex pain puzzle.</p> <p>If women are not listened to, their symptoms not recognised, and effective treatment options not adequately discussed and provided, longer gynaecological consultations may not help patients. So what else do we need to do?</p> <p><strong>1. Physician knowledge</strong></p> <p>Doctors’ knowledge of women’s pain requires development through both practitioner <a href="https://health-policy-systems.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12961-022-00815-4/tables/2">education and guidelines</a>. This knowledge should also include dedicated efforts toward understanding the <a href="https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2018/07/02/the-neuroscience-of-pain">neuroscience of pain</a>.</p> <p>Diagnostic processes should be tailored to consider gender-specific symptoms and responses to <a href="https://www.thelancet.com/journals/eclinm/article/PIIS2589-5370(24)00137-8/fulltext">pain</a>.</p> <p><strong>2. Research and collaboration</strong></p> <p>Medical decisions should be based on the best and most inclusive evidence. Understanding the complexities of pain in women is essential for managing their pain. Collaboration between health-care experts from different disciplines can facilitate comprehensive and holistic pain research and management strategies.</p> <p><strong>3. Further care and service improvements</strong></p> <p>Women’s health requires multidisciplinary treatment and care which extends beyond their GP or specialist. For example, conditions like endometriosis often see people presenting to emergency departments in <a href="https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/chronic-disease/endometriosis-in-australia/contents/treatment-management/ed-presentations">acute pain</a>, so practitioners in these settings need to have the right knowledge and be able to provide support.</p> <p>Meanwhile, pelvic ultrasounds, especially the kind that have the potential to visualise endometriosis, take longer to perform and require a <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0015028223020757/">specialist sonographer</a>. Current rebates do not reflect the time and expertise needed for these imaging procedures.</p> <p><strong>4. Adjusting the parameters of ‘women’s pain’</strong></p> <p>Conditions like PCOS and endometriosis don’t just affect women – they also impact people who are gender-diverse. Improving how people in this group are treated is just as salient as addressing how we treat women.</p> <p>Similarly, the gynaecological health-care needs of culturally and linguistically diverse and Aboriginal and Torres Strait islander women may be even <a href="https://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/20/13/6321">less likely to be met</a> than those of women in the general population.</p> <h2>Challenging gender norms</h2> <p>Research suggests one of the keys to reducing the gender pain gap is challenging deeply embedded <a href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29682130/">gendered norms</a> in clinical practice and research.</p> <p>We are hearing women’s suffering. Let’s make sure we are also listening and responding in ways that close the gender pain gap.<!-- Below is The Conversation's page counter tag. Please DO NOT REMOVE. --><img style="border: none !important; box-shadow: none !important; margin: 0 !important; max-height: 1px !important; max-width: 1px !important; min-height: 1px !important; min-width: 1px !important; opacity: 0 !important; outline: none !important; padding: 0 !important;" src="https://counter.theconversation.com/content/229802/count.gif?distributor=republish-lightbox-basic" alt="The Conversation" width="1" height="1" /><!-- End of code. If you don't see any code above, please get new code from the Advanced tab after you click the republish button. The page counter does not collect any personal data. More info: https://theconversation.com/republishing-guidelines --></p> <p><em><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/michelle-oshea-457947">Michelle O'Shea</a>, Senior Lecturer, School of Business, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/western-sydney-university-1092">Western Sydney University</a>; <a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/hannah-adler-1533549">Hannah Adler</a>, PhD candidate, health communication and health sociology, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/griffith-university-828">Griffith University</a>; <a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/marilla-l-druitt-1533572">Marilla L. Druitt</a>, Affiliate Senior Lecturer, Faculty of Health, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/deakin-university-757">Deakin University</a>, and <a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/mike-armour-391382">Mike Armour</a>, Associate Professor at NICM Health Research Institute, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/western-sydney-university-1092">Western Sydney University</a></em></p> <p><em>Image credits: Shutterstock</em></p> <p><em>This article is republished from <a href="https://theconversation.com">The Conversation</a> under a Creative Commons license. Read the <a href="https://theconversation.com/longer-appointments-are-just-the-start-of-tackling-the-gender-pain-gap-here-are-4-more-things-we-can-do-229802">original article</a>.</em></p> </div>

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To tackle gendered violence, we also need to look at drugs, trauma and mental health

<div class="theconversation-article-body"> <p><em><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/siobhan-odean-1356613">Siobhan O'Dean</a>, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/university-of-sydney-841">University of Sydney</a>; <a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/lucinda-grummitt-1531503">Lucinda Grummitt</a>, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/university-of-sydney-841">University of Sydney</a>, and <a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/steph-kershaw-1466426">Steph Kershaw</a>, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/university-of-sydney-841">University of Sydney</a></em></p> <p>After several highly publicised alleged murders of women in Australia, the Albanese government this week pledged <a href="https://ministers.pmc.gov.au/gallagher/2024/helping-women-leave-violent-partner-payment">more than A$925 million</a> over five years to address men’s violence towards women. This includes up to $5,000 to support those escaping violent relationships.</p> <p>However, to reduce and prevent gender-based and intimate partner violence we also need to address the root causes and contributors. These include alcohol and other drugs, trauma and mental health issues.</p> <h2>Why is this crucial?</h2> <p>The World Health Organization estimates <a href="https://iris.who.int/bitstream/handle/10665/341604/WHO-SRH-21.6-eng.pdf?sequence=1">30% of women</a> globally have experienced intimate partner violence, gender-based violence or both. In Australia, <a href="https://www.abs.gov.au/statistics/people/crime-and-justice/partner-violence/latest-release#key-statistics">27% of women</a> have experienced intimate partner violence by a co-habiting partner; <a href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/37004184/">almost 40%</a> of Australian children are exposed to domestic violence.</p> <p>By gender-based violence we mean violence or intentionally harmful behaviour directed at someone due to their gender. But intimate partner violence specifically refers to violence and abuse occurring between current (or former) romantic partners. Domestic violence can extend beyond intimate partners, to include other family members.</p> <p>These statistics highlight the urgent need to address not just the aftermath of such violence, but also its roots, including the experiences and behaviours of perpetrators.</p> <h2>What’s the link with mental health, trauma and drugs?</h2> <p>The relationships between mental illness, drug use, traumatic experiences and violence are complex.</p> <p>When we look specifically at the link between mental illness and violence, most people with mental illness will not become violent. But there <a href="https://theconversation.com/bondi-attacker-had-mental-health-issues-but-most-people-with-mental-illness-arent-violent-227868">is evidence</a> people with serious mental illness can be more likely to become violent.</p> <p>The use of alcohol and other drugs also <a href="https://theconversation.com/alcohol-and-drug-use-exacerbate-family-violence-and-can-be-dealt-with-69986">increases the risk</a> of domestic violence, including intimate partner violence.</p> <p>About <a href="https://www.aihw.gov.au/family-domestic-and-sexual-violence/understanding-fdsv/factors-associated-with-fdsv">one in three</a> intimate partner violence incidents involve alcohol. These are more likely to result in physical injury and hospitalisation. The risk of perpetrating violence is even higher for people with mental ill health who are also <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1525086/">using alcohol or other drugs</a>.</p> <p>It’s also important to consider traumatic experiences. Most people who experience trauma do not commit violent acts, but there are <a href="https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lanpub/article/PIIS2468-2667(23)00075-0/fulltext">high rates</a> of trauma among people who become violent.</p> <p>For example, experiences of childhood trauma (such as witnessing physical abuse) <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1359178915000828?via%3Dihub">can increase the risk</a> of perpetrating domestic violence as an adult.</p> <p>Early traumatic experiences can affect the brain and body’s <a href="https://bmcmedicine.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12916-017-0895-4">stress response</a>, leading to heightened fear and perception of threat, and difficulty regulating emotions. This can result in aggressive responses when faced with conflict or stress.</p> <p>This response to stress increases the risk of <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9675346/">alcohol and drug problems</a>, developing <a href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30798897/">PTSD</a> (post-traumatic stress disorder), and <a href="https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2015-17349-001">increases the risk</a> of perpetrating intimate partner violence.</p> <h2>How can we address these overlapping issues?</h2> <p>We can reduce intimate partner violence by addressing these overlapping issues and tackling the root causes and contributors.</p> <p>The early intervention and treatment of <a href="https://doi.org/10.1186/s12905-019-0728-z">mental illness</a>, <a href="https://doi.org/10.1177/1541204020939645">trauma</a> (including PTSD), and <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.2015.06.001">alcohol and other drug use</a>, could help reduce violence. So extra investment for these are needed. We also need more investment to <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2212657023000508">prevent mental health issues</a>, and preventing alcohol and drug use disorders from developing in the first place.</p> <p><a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S074937972200023X?via%3Dihub">Preventing trauma</a> from occuring and supporting those exposed is crucial to end what can often become a vicious cycle of intergenerational trauma and violence. <a href="https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/070674371105600505">Safe and supportive</a> environments and relationships can protect children against mental health problems or further violence as they grow up and engage in their own intimate relationships.</p> <p>We also need to acknowledge the widespread <a href="https://store.samhsa.gov/product/practical-guide-implementing-trauma-informed-approach/pep23-06-05-005">impact of trauma</a> and its effects on mental health, drug use and violence. This needs to be integrated into policies and practices to reduce re-traumatising individuals.</p> <h2>How about programs for perpetrators?</h2> <p>Most existing standard intervention programs for perpetrators <a href="https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1524838018791268">do not consider</a> the links between trauma, mental health and perpetrating intimate partner violence. Such programs tend to have <a href="https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1037/a0012718">little</a> or <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2021.101974">mixed effects</a> on the behaviour of perpetrators.</p> <p>But we could improve these programs with a <a href="http://rcfv.archive.royalcommission.vic.gov.au/MediaLibraries/RCFamilyViolence/Reports/RCFV_Full_Report_Interactive.pdf">coordinated approach</a> including treating mental illness, drug use and trauma at the same time.</p> <p>Such “<a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S014976341930449X?via%3Dihub">multicomponent</a>” programs show promise in meaningfully reducing violent behaviour. However, we need more rigorous and large-scale evaluations of how well they work.</p> <h2>What needs to happen next?</h2> <p>Supporting victim-survivors and improving interventions for perpetrators are both needed. However, intervening once violence has occurred is arguably too late.</p> <p>We need to direct our efforts towards broader, holistic approaches to prevent and reduce intimate partner violence, including addressing the underlying contributors to violence we’ve outlined.</p> <p>We also need to look more widely at preventing intimate partner violence and gendered violence.</p> <p>We need developmentally appropriate <a href="https://theconversation.com/4-things-our-schools-should-do-now-to-help-prevent-gender-based-violence-228993">education and skills-based programs</a> for adolescents to prevent the emergence of unhealthy relationship patterns before they become established.</p> <p>We also need to address the <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7278040/">social determinants of health</a> that contribute to violence. This includes improving access to affordable housing, employment opportunities and accessible health-care support and treatment options.</p> <p>All these will be critical if we are to break the cycle of intimate partner violence and improve outcomes for victim-survivors.</p> <hr /> <p><em>The National Sexual Assault, Family and Domestic Violence Counselling Line – 1800 RESPECT (1800 737 732) – is available 24 hours a day, seven days a week for any Australian who has experienced, or is at risk of, family and domestic violence and/or sexual assault.</em></p> <p><em>If this article has raised issues for you, or if you’re concerned about someone you know, call Lifeline on 13 11 14. In an emergency, call 000.</em><!-- Below is The Conversation's page counter tag. Please DO NOT REMOVE. --><img style="border: none !important; box-shadow: none !important; margin: 0 !important; max-height: 1px !important; max-width: 1px !important; min-height: 1px !important; min-width: 1px !important; opacity: 0 !important; outline: none !important; padding: 0 !important;" src="https://counter.theconversation.com/content/229182/count.gif?distributor=republish-lightbox-basic" alt="The Conversation" width="1" height="1" /><!-- End of code. If you don't see any code above, please get new code from the Advanced tab after you click the republish button. The page counter does not collect any personal data. More info: https://theconversation.com/republishing-guidelines --></p> <p><em><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/siobhan-odean-1356613">Siobhan O'Dean</a>, Postdoctoral Research Associate, The Matilda Centre for Research in Mental Health and Substance Use, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/university-of-sydney-841">University of Sydney</a>; <a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/lucinda-grummitt-1531503">Lucinda Grummitt</a>, Postdoctoral Research Fellow, The Matilda Centre for Research in Mental Health and Substance Use, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/university-of-sydney-841">University of Sydney</a>, and <a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/steph-kershaw-1466426">Steph Kershaw</a>, Research Fellow, The Matilda Centre for Research in Mental Health and Substance Use, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/university-of-sydney-841">University of Sydney</a></em></p> <p><em>Image credits: Getty Images </em></p> <p><em>This article is republished from <a href="https://theconversation.com">The Conversation</a> under a Creative Commons license. Read the <a href="https://theconversation.com/to-tackle-gendered-violence-we-also-need-to-look-at-drugs-trauma-and-mental-health-229182">original article</a>.</em></p> </div>

Caring

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"We've all gone": Why Jackie O stormed off set

<p>Jackie O Henderson has marched out of KIIS FM in the middle of <em>The Kyle and Jackie O show, </em>after finding out that the station has the highest gender pay gap disparity across Australian radio.</p> <p>“Southern Cross Austereo has a disgraceful 5.9% pay gap. At Nova and Smooth FM it is even worse, six per cent." <span style="font-family: -apple-system, BlinkMacSystemFont, 'Segoe UI', Roboto, Oxygen, Ubuntu, Cantarell, 'Open Sans', 'Helvetica Neue', sans-serif;">Kyle Sandilands told listeners on Tuesday.</span></p> <p><span style="font-family: -apple-system, BlinkMacSystemFont, 'Segoe UI', Roboto, Oxygen, Ubuntu, Cantarell, 'Open Sans', 'Helvetica Neue', sans-serif;">"But unfortunately, the number one spot is at KIIS FM, – at the top of the tree with a 12% pay gap disparity.”</span></p> <p>Sandilands, who famously fought for Henderson to secure equal pay on their radio program, then brought on one of the show’s producers Pete Deppeler and another female KIIS FM producer, who revealed she was only being paid half of what Deppeler was. </p> <p>“Are you freaking joking? Why is Peter getting that much money? I’m so angry about that, it makes my blood boil,” Henderson replied. </p> <p>She then left the studios with all her female colleagues. </p> <p>“We’ve all gone,” she said.</p> <p>"We are just here with the fellas. I don’t know whether I am enjoying this, bring the girls back!” Sandilands told listeners. </p> <p>On Tuesday, the Workplace Gender Equality Agency published the gender pay gap for more than 5,000 Australian companies.</p> <p>This was done after Prime Minister Anthony Albanese ordered the information to be made public for the first time ever, so the data can be compared within and across industries.</p> <p>The new data revealed that the national gap for total remuneration sits at 19 per cent and the median Australian female worker is taking home $18,461 less than their male counterpart.</p> <p>Despite a few criticisms on Albanese's decision to publicise this data, Workplace Minister Tony Burke has said that releasing this data is effective. </p> <p>“People on this side know that releasing that sort of data is effective and you will only find in the other side of politics anyone arguing that it is useless,‘’ he said.</p> <p>“The days of secretly paying women less than men are now over.”</p> <p><em>Images: Kyle and Jacki O Show</em></p>

Money & Banking

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From this week, you’ll be able to look up individual companies’ gender pay gaps

<p><em><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/natasha-bradshaw-1358801">Natasha Bradshaw</a>, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/grattan-institute-1168">Grattan Institute</a></em></p> <p>There will be nervous executives all over Australia this week.</p> <p>Come Tuesday, large private sector organisations will have their company’s gender pay gaps published for the first time for all to see, name, and shame.</p> <p>As they brace for the fallout, let’s look at how what we will be told is changing, and what it will mean for you.</p> <h2>What is changing?</h2> <p>Every year, the Workplace Gender Equality Agency (<a href="https://www.wgea.gov.au/">WGEA</a>) collects information from every employer with more than 100 employees. Until now it has published only a summary of the findings on its website, including Australia’s overall gender pay gap, and the gap by industry and employment arrangement.</p> <p>But for the first time legislation enacted last year also allows WGEA to publish the gender pay gaps of individual employers.</p> <figure class="align-right zoomable"><figcaption></figcaption></figure> <p>Tuesday’s release will include each large company’s median gender pay gap, and the share of women it employs in lower- and higher-paid jobs.</p> <p>Employers will have the chance to publish a <a href="https://www.wgea.gov.au/data-statistics/data-explorer">statement</a> alongside their results to provide context.</p> <p>That means from Tuesday you will be able to look on the <a href="https://www.wgea.gov.au/">WGEA website</a> and find the median gender pay gap of your large private sector organisation, or of an organisation you are thinking of joining, and how it stacks up against its competitors.</p> <h2>Why the change?</h2> <p>Australian women, like women elsewhere, have made astounding progress in the workforce in recent decades.</p> <p>Women are both working and earning more than ever before. But progress has stalled, and the gender pay gap remains stubbornly persistent.</p> <p>The Albanese government has shown its commitment to gender equity by increasing the <a href="https://www.servicesaustralia.gov.au/child-care-subsidy">childcare subsidy</a> and extending <a href="https://www.servicesaustralia.gov.au/parental-leave-pay">paid parental leave</a>.</p> <p>But beyond this, the options for governments are limited. Most of the barriers to women getting better-paid jobs can only be broken by employers.</p> <p>The public naming and shaming that will begin on Tuesday will push accountability onto employers, holding them responsible for the conditions in their workplaces.</p> <p>Workers and bosses are going to take notice: when employer gender pay gaps were released in the UK in 2018 it was the <a href="https://www.genderpay.co.uk/wp-downloads/moving-forward-may-2018/presentations/Gender_Pay_Gap_Moving_Forward_May_2018_Studio_2_5_Nick_Bishop.pdf">biggest business news story of the year</a>, with coverage rivalling the wedding of Prince Harry and Meghan Markle.</p> <p>At a time when companies are fighting for top talent, it is going to make it more difficult for employers with large pay gaps to hire talented women.</p> <p>Research shows that on average women are willing to accept a <a href="https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3584259">5% lower salary</a> in order to avoid working for the employers with the biggest gender pay gaps.</p> <figure><iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/vAr1Lhaw0Ao?wmode=transparent&amp;start=0" width="440" height="260" frameborder="0" allowfullscreen="allowfullscreen"></iframe><figcaption><span class="caption">Workplace Gender Equality Agency.</span></figcaption></figure> <h2>Let’s not rush to judge</h2> <p>While <a href="https://www.wgea.gov.au/about/our-legislation/publishing-employer-gender-pay-gaps">naming and shaming</a> will help make this policy effective, we should be careful about rushing to judgement.</p> <p>It is possible for an employer to be making serious efforts to improve while its gap remains large.</p> <p>And some actions aimed at improving things, such as implementing a gender quota on entry-level positions, can worsen a company’s apparent gender pay gap in the short term by temporarily increasing the number of lowly-paid women.</p> <p>Also, there will be firms that have a low gender pay gap because they pay both men and women poorly.</p> <p>On Tuesday, we should instead look closely at whether the organisation has outlined clear steps it will take to improve, and how it compares to its competitors. In future years, we will be able to see how things have changed.</p> <h2>What will matter is what employers do next</h2> <p>Since the UK reforms were introduced in 2018, the gender pay gap has narrowed by <a href="https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3584259">one-fifth</a>, with the biggest improvements coming from the worst offenders.</p> <p>UK companies have also become more likely to include wage information in their job ads, equalising the starting point of wage negotiations for all applicants.</p> <p>But for existing employees, the narrowing of the gap has been caused more by slower growth in men’s wages than faster growth in women’s wages, which isn’t good news for anyone looking for a pay rise.</p> <p>The full effects of the Australian reforms won’t be seen for some time.</p> <p>It is likely that making high-paid jobs more accessible to women will allow employers to tap into a new talent pool and encourage more highly credentialed women into the workforce, adding to productivity growth.</p> <p>What is clear now is that if we want to narrow the gender pay gap, we need to know what’s happening. The avalanche of data due on Tuesday will be a start.<!-- Below is The Conversation's page counter tag. Please DO NOT REMOVE. --><img style="border: none !important; box-shadow: none !important; margin: 0 !important; max-height: 1px !important; max-width: 1px !important; min-height: 1px !important; min-width: 1px !important; opacity: 0 !important; outline: none !important; padding: 0 !important;" src="https://counter.theconversation.com/content/224167/count.gif?distributor=republish-lightbox-basic" alt="The Conversation" width="1" height="1" /><!-- End of code. If you don't see any code above, please get new code from the Advanced tab after you click the republish button. The page counter does not collect any personal data. More info: https://theconversation.com/republishing-guidelines --></p> <p><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/natasha-bradshaw-1358801"><em>Natasha Bradshaw</em></a><em>, Senior Associate, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/grattan-institute-1168">Grattan Institute</a></em></p> <p><em>Image credits: Getty Images </em></p> <p><em>This article is republished from <a href="https://theconversation.com">The Conversation</a> under a Creative Commons license. Read the <a href="https://theconversation.com/from-this-week-youll-be-able-to-look-up-individual-companies-gender-pay-gaps-224167">original article</a>.</em></p>

Money & Banking

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Horrifying moment plane crashes in gender reveal stunt

<p>A gender reveal party in Mexico has ended in tragedy after the stunt plane crashed killing the pilot. </p> <p>The video, filmed by a party guest, showed an expecting couple smiling as they waited for the plane to ascend and perform the reveal. </p> <p>The pair stood in front of a sign that read: "Oh baby!" as the small plane approached them releasing pink smoke, signalling to the couple that they are having a girl. </p> <p>Tragedy struck when the pilot pulled the Piper PA-25-235 Pawnee aircraft upwards and the left wing suddenly gave way, sending aircraft into a tailspin, ultimately leading to the fatal crash. </p> <p><em>The Sun</em> reported that the attendees seemed oblivious to the crash as they continued to celebrate the gender reveal. </p> <blockquote class="twitter-tweet"> <p dir="ltr" lang="en">Pilot killed after his Piper PA-25 left wing failed at a gender reveal party in the town of San Pedro, Mexico. <a href="https://t.co/6JILK7fsGm">pic.twitter.com/6JILK7fsGm</a></p> <p>— Breaking Aviation News & Videos (@aviationbrk) <a href="https://twitter.com/aviationbrk/status/1698255432630796349?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">September 3, 2023</a></p></blockquote> <p>Later on, graphic photos of the horrendous aftermath emerged showing the 32-year-old pilot,  Luis Angel N., lying in the wreckage of the plane before he was rushed to hospital where he unfortunately passed away, according to local media reports. </p> <p>A few other photos of the wreckage has also been posted on X, formerly known as Twitter, with a few people rushing to get the pilot out. </p> <p>Footage of the gender reveal party has since gone viral, with viewers sharing their condolences to the pilot, while others slammed the "extreme gender reveals". </p> <p>"The way the camera panned back to the couple with not the slightest care in the world for the pilot is sad," one commented. </p> <p>“Why do they have to do such extreme gender reveals lately? Why can’t they just settle for something simple?” added another. </p> <p>“It looks like he over stressed the aircraft. I wonder if he was above safe manoeuvring speed? I hate to see it," wrote a third. </p> <p>A fourth person commented: “Whats the point of this at the first place? I see so many accidents and incidents doing gender reveals.”</p> <p><em>Images: Twitter</em></p>

Family & Pets

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How biological differences between men and women alter immune responses – and affect women’s health

<p><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/helen-mcgettrick-1451122">Helen McGettrick</a>, <em><a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/university-of-birmingham-1138">University of Birmingham</a></em> and <a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/asif-iqbal-1451123">Asif Iqbal</a>, <em><a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/university-of-birmingham-1138">University of Birmingham</a></em></p> <p>Most people will have heard the term “man flu”, which refers to men’s perceived tendency to exaggerate the severity of a cold or a similar minor ailment.</p> <p>What most people may not know is that, generally speaking, women mount stronger <a href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36121220/">immune responses</a> to infections than men. Men are <a href="https://journals.plos.org/plospathogens/article?id=10.1371/journal.ppat.1005374">more susceptible</a> to infections from, for example, HIV, hepatitis B, and <em>Plasmodium falciparum</em> (the parasite responsible for malaria).</p> <p>They can also have more severe symptoms, with evidence showing they’re more likely to be <a href="https://journals.plos.org/plospathogens/article?id=10.1371/journal.ppat.1005374">admitted to hospital</a> when infected with hepatitis B, tuberculosis, and <em>Campylobacter jejuni</em> (a bacteria that causes gastroenteritis), among others.</p> <p>While this may be positive for women in some respects, it also means women are at <a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/nri2815">greater risk</a> of developing chronic diseases driven by the immune system, known as immune-mediated inflammatory diseases.</p> <p>Here we will explore how biological factors influence immune differences between the sexes and how this affects women’s health. While we acknowledge that both sex and gender may affect immune responses, this article will focus on biological sex rather than gender.</p> <h2>Battle of the sexes</h2> <p>There are differences <a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/nri.2016.90">between the sexes</a> at every stage of the immune response, from the number of immune cells, to their degree of activation (how ready they are to respond to a challenge), and beyond.</p> <p>However, the story is more complicated than that. Our immune system evolves throughout our lives, learning from past experiences, but also responding to the physiological challenges of getting older. As a result, <a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/nri.2016.90">sex differences</a> in the immune system can be seen from birth through puberty into adulthood and <a href="https://academic.oup.com/jleukbio/advance-article/doi/10.1093/jleuko/qiad053/7190870">old age</a>.</p> <p>Why do these differences occur? The first part of answering this question involves the X chromosome. Females have two X chromosomes, while males have one X and one Y chromosome. The <a href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20651746/">X chromosome</a> contains the largest number of immune-related genes.</p> <p>The X chromosome also has <a href="https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00018-020-03526-7">around 118 genes</a> from a gene family that are able to stop the expression of other genes, or change how proteins are made, including those required for immunity. These gene-protein regulators are known as microRNA, and there are only <a href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24808907/">two microRNA genes</a> on the Y chromosome.</p> <p>The X chromosome has <a href="https://www.genome.gov/about-genomics/fact-sheets/X-Chromosome-facts">more genes overall</a> (around 900) than the Y chromosome (around 55), so female cells have evolved to switch off one of their X chromosomes. This is not like turning off a light switch, but more like using a dimmer.</p> <p>Around <a href="https://bmcgenomics.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12864-019-5507-6">15-25% of genes</a> on the silenced X chromosome are expressed at any given moment in any given cell. This means female cells can often express more immune-related genes and gene-protein regulators than males. This generally means a faster clearance of pathogens in females than males.</p> <p>Second, men and women have <a href="https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2020.604000/full">varying levels</a> of different sex hormones. Progesterone and testosterone are broadly considered to limit immune responses. While both hormones are produced by males and females, progesterone is found at higher concentrations in non-menopausal women than men, and testosterone is much higher in men than women.</p> <p>The role of <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6533072/">oestrogen</a>, one of the main female sex hormones, is more complicated. Although generally oestrogen <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S000887491500026X?via%3Dihub">enhances immune responses</a>, its levels vary during the menstrual cycle, are high in pregnancy and low after menopause.</p> <p>Due in part to these genetic and hormonal factors, pregnancy and the years following are associated with heightened immune responses to external challenges such as infection.</p> <p>This has been regarded as an <a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/nri.2016.90">evolutionary feature</a>, protecting women and their unborn children during pregnancy and enhancing the mother’s survival throughout the child-rearing years, ultimately ensuring the survival of the population. We also see this pattern in <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2628977/">other species</a> including insects, lizards, birds and mammals.</p> <h2>What does this all mean?</h2> <p>With women’s heightened immune responses to infections comes an increased risk of certain diseases and prolonged immune responses after infections.</p> <p>An <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3328995/">estimated 75-80%</a> of all immune-mediated inflammatory diseases <a href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32542149/">occur in females</a>. Diseases more common in women include multiple sclerosis, <a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/nri2815">rheumatoid arthritis</a>, lupus, Sjogren’s syndrome, and <a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/nri.2016.90">thyroid disorders</a> such as Graves disease.</p> <p>In these diseases, the immune system is continuously fighting against what it sees as a foreign agent. However, often this perceived threat is not a foreign agent, but cells or tissues from the host. This leads to tissue damage, pain and immobility.</p> <p>Women are also prone to chronic inflammation following infection. For example, after infections with <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5818468/">Epstein Barr virus</a> or <a href="https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/10.1089/jwh.2008.1193">Lyme disease</a>, they may go on to develop <a href="https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/chronic-fatigue-syndrome-cfs/">chronic fatigue syndrome</a>, another condition that affects more women than men.</p> <p>This is one possible explanation for the heightened risk among <a href="https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fresc.2023.1122673/full">pre-menopausal women</a> of developing long COVID following infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID.</p> <p>Research has also revealed the presence of auto-antibodies (antibodies that attack the host) in patients with long COVID, suggesting it might be an <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1568997221000550">autoimmune disease</a>. As women are more susceptible to autoimmune conditions, this could potentially explain the sex bias seen.</p> <p>However, the exact causes of long COVID, and the reason women may be at greater risk, are yet to be defined.</p> <p>This paints a bleak picture, but it’s not all bad news. Women typically mount <a href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24966191/">better vaccine responses</a> to several common infections (for example, influenza, measles, mumps, rubella, hepatitis A and B), producing higher antibody levels than men.</p> <p>One study showed that women vaccinated with half a dose of flu vaccine produced the same amount of antibodies compared to men vaccinated with <a href="https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamainternalmedicine/fullarticle/773453">a full dose</a>.</p> <p>However, these responses <a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/nri.2016.90">decline as women age</a>, and particularly <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3954964/">after menopause</a>.</p> <p>All of this shows it’s vital to consider sex when designing studies examining the immune system and treating patients with immune-related diseases.<!-- Below is The Conversation's page counter tag. Please DO NOT REMOVE. --><img style="border: none !important; box-shadow: none !important; margin: 0 !important; max-height: 1px !important; max-width: 1px !important; min-height: 1px !important; min-width: 1px !important; opacity: 0 !important; outline: none !important; padding: 0 !important;" src="https://counter.theconversation.com/content/208802/count.gif?distributor=republish-lightbox-basic" alt="The Conversation" width="1" height="1" /><!-- End of code. If you don't see any code above, please get new code from the Advanced tab after you click the republish button. The page counter does not collect any personal data. More info: https://theconversation.com/republishing-guidelines --></p> <p><em><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/helen-mcgettrick-1451122">Helen McGettrick</a>, Reader in Inflammation and Vascular Biology, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/university-of-birmingham-1138">University of Birmingham</a> and <a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/asif-iqbal-1451123">Asif Iqbal</a>, Associate Professor in Inflammation Biology, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/university-of-birmingham-1138">University of Birmingham</a></em></p> <p><em>Image credits: Getty Images</em></p> <p><em>This article is republished from <a href="https://theconversation.com">The Conversation</a> under a Creative Commons license. Read the <a href="https://theconversation.com/how-biological-differences-between-men-and-women-alter-immune-responses-and-affect-womens-health-208802">original article</a>.</em></p>

Body

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"I was heartbroken": Why Sam Kerr had to hide her gender

<p>Sam Kerr is known as one of the greatest strikers in women's football. And now, with the Matlidas on the way to the World Cup semifinals, we are learning more and more about the challenges Kerr faced as a junior Aussie Rules player in South Fremantle, WA</p> <p>Kerr, who grew up in East Fremantle, south of Perth, did not have an easy start to what would be an exceptional football career, as she initially started playing for the boys' team when she was around five or six.</p> <p>Kerr, was the only girl who played junior Australian rules football for South Fremantle, but that didn't deter her from fulfilling her dreams.</p> <p>“I knew I’d be the only girl on the team but that didn’t worry me at all,” she wrote in her new book My Journey to the World Cup.</p> <p>Kerr said that her teammates assumed she was a boy because she had “short hair and blonde tips”, but didn't do anything to correct them as she was comfortable with it.</p> <p>So she decided to keep her gender a secret.</p> <p>"I didn’t want them to treat me any differently just because I was a girl," she said.</p> <p>“I remember one of the boys crying when he found out.</p> <p>“But as good as I was out on the field, and as much as I loved playing the game, the physical differences between the guys and me eventually became too pronounced and the play was too rough," she added.</p> <p>“One day, I came home from a game with yet another black eye and bloody lip, and that’s when my dad and brother both said, ‘Nup, this isn’t happening anymore’.</p> <p>“I was getting battered around so much out on the field that it was getting to be a big problem. Dad and my coach both sat me down then and said it was getting far too dangerous for me to continue to play," she said.</p> <p>Kerr revealed that she was devastated that she wasn't allowed to play football anymore because there were no girls' teams in her area for her to join.</p> <p>“They said they were sorry, but that I wasn’t allowed to play football any more. I understood the reasons why, but I was heartbroken.</p> <p>"Back then, there were no girls’ teams in my area for me to join, and to know that I’d never play a sport that I loved so much ever again was devastating.”</p> <p>By the age of 12, she switched to association football, but a year later she was spotted by Perth Glory striker Bobby Despotovski who has fascinated by her raw talent and athleticism.</p> <p>By the age of 15 she made her professional soccer debut and earned her maiden Matildas cap and the rest is history.</p> <p><em>Images: Ryan Pierse Getty Images/ Nine</em></p>

Family & Pets

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Sickness or health: Healthy life split along gender, education lines

<p>Australians are living and working longer than ever, but the number of healthy years they’re enjoying with this added longevity isn’t shared equally between the sexes, or by those who finished school before Year 12.</p> <div class="copy"> <p>A paper recently <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/S2468-2667(23)00129-9" target="_blank" rel="noreferrer noopener" data-type="URL" data-id="https://doi.org/10.1016/S2468-2667(23)00129-9">published</a> in <em>The Lancet</em> <em>Public Health</em> from the Ageing Futures Institute at the University of New South Wales shows an increase in longevity in Australia. Other data in the publication reveal detail about “healthy years”.</p> <p>Men, and those with higher levels of education, worked about 2 years longer in good health. For women and those with lower education, the years of healthy life expectancy have gone backwards.</p> <p>The report, led by statistician Dr Kim Kiely who is now based at The University of Wollongong, compared representative cohorts of people aged 50-100 who participated in the Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia survey (HILDA). Those cohorts were measured over decade long periods – the first from 2001-2010 and the second from 2011-2020.</p> <p>Men added an extra 11 months of healthy life between the cohorts, while women lost a month. Similarly those of any gender who had completed year 12 added about 10 months to their healthy life expectancy, while the same amount of time was lost by those who hadn’t.</p> <p>“Everyone’s increasing their working life expectancy, so the years they’re expected to be working,” Kiely says. “What is different is how long they’re expected to be living in good health: women and people with low education didn’t have an improvement in healthy life expectancy.</p> <p>“Everyone’s also living longer than ever before, but for women, those extra years seem to be years of poor health.  People with lower education – they end up going backwards, they’re losing years of healthy life.”</p> <p>Australia’s working life trends are similar to those in Europe and the UK, though this research suggests the Australian labour force works longer in poor health than their antipodean counterparts.</p> <p>Kiely says the findings are important considerations for policymakers pondering questions of retirement and pension ages: the demands of some labour may not be evenly spread when it comes to considering health implications.</p> <p>“We have a pension age that has been rising steadily over the past couple of decades – it’s not rising anymore – but there is a strong expectation for people to be working longer,” Kiely says. “And if that is the case, then we need opportunities for work for mature age, older adults, and those work opportunities have to be suitable for their capacity to work.</p> <p>“We do need to address things like age and gender discrimination in the workforce. And we need to think about how we support people who are unable to work before they reach the pension age.”</p> <p>Kiely is extending his research into how the nature of work in Australia influences these high-level findings. He hopes this can explain why gender and education influence healthy working years.</p> <p>Further drilling down into other subgroups is important, say Dr Marty Lynch and Dr Ross Wilkie from Keele University, UK. They investigated healthy working life expectancy as part of Britain’s Independent State Pension Age Review last year. They too found Briton were working longer, but not at a rate that keeps pace with the national pension age.</p> <p>In a <em>Lancet</em> editorial accompanying the Australian research, they point out that the HILDA data evaluation only shows changes in average ages on gender and education lines.</p> <p>“The extent of HWLE [Healthy Working Life Expectancy] inequalities between subpopulations with multiple specific characteristics are likely to be even wider and will also indicate targets and interventions to increase the number of years that people can be healthy and in work,” they say.</p> <p>The impact of socioeconomic status on life expectancy and disease burden was recently highlighted in a large-scale review of Australia’s 30-year health data.</p> <p><a href="https://cosmosmagazine.com/people/society/australias-life-expectancy-is-up-but-healthy-years-are-a-different-story/">It found</a> while Australians have added 6 years to their life expectancy since 1990, those with lower socioeconomic backgrounds had a higher risk of death-causing disease.</p> <p><em>Image credits: Getty Images</em></p> <p><em><a href="https://cosmosmagazine.com/people/society/sickness-or-health-healthy-life-split-along-gender-education-lines/">This article</a> was originally published on <a href="https://cosmosmagazine.com">Cosmos Magazine</a> and was written by <a href="null">Cosmos</a>. </em></p> </div>

Retirement Life

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Hugh Sheridan quietly changes pronouns

<p dir="ltr">Hugh Sheridan has quietly changed his pronouns back to he/him after identifying as non-binary for the last two years.</p> <p dir="ltr">The Aussie actor had been going by they/them pronouns, after coming out as a “nonbinary bisexual human” in 2021. </p> <p dir="ltr">Nonbinary people don't categorise their gender identity as either male or female and often go by the inclusive pronouns of they/them.</p> <p dir="ltr">On Tuesday evening, the 38-year-old quietly changed his pronouns to he/him on his Instagram profile. </p> <p dir="ltr">Hugh has previously made the announcement that he was non-binary on Instagram in a post to promote landing the cover of gay men's magazine <em><a href="https://www.dnamagazine.com.au/hugh-sheridan-our-leading-man-dna-magazine-exclusive/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DNA</a></em>.</p> <p dir="ltr">“I AM still a human (non binary/bi/me/Hughman) but I'm in a monogamous relationship with another human, who I love,” Hugh wrote. </p> <p dir="ltr">He continued, “I don't accept a label cause it limits me… if you want it, take it.”</p> <p dir="ltr">“I chose zero labels for no other reason except the exclusion, limitations, separation, I believe are all one, deeeeep down.”</p> <p dir="ltr">“And who knows? Why choose? Be you. Be true. Be free to BE, to JUST BE… you, a human, same as me.”</p> <p dir="ltr">In the interview with DNA, Hugh said that he was now comfortable with being called “gay”, despite not subscribing to labels.</p> <p dir="ltr">“Now I'm marrying a guy you can call me gay,” Hugh explained to the magazine.</p> <p dir="ltr">At the time, the <em>Packed to the Rafters</em> star was set to marry influencer Kurt Roberts, but the pair <a href="https://oversixty.com.au/lifestyle/relationships/hugh-sheridan-splits-from-fiance-after-eight-month-engagement" target="_blank" rel="noopener">split</a> just eight months after announcing their engagement. </p> <p dir="ltr">“Whatever! The point is, we're all human and, in my case, labelling put me into a box that felt like a cell,” he added. </p> <p dir="ltr"><em>Image credits: Getty Images</em></p>

TV

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How 1920s high society fashion pushed gender boundaries through ‘freaking’ parties

<p><em><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/dominic-janes-347508">Dominic Janes</a>, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/keele-university-1012">Keele University</a></em></p> <p>The 1920s brought about a rise in androgynous fashion among a high society set that broke boundaries and caused controversy. This drew on a subculture that had existed for decades, perhaps centuries, but after the first world war gender-bending fashions became front page news.</p> <p>It was a time of upheaval. Established regimes were toppling across Europe. In Britain, women over 30 had finally been given the vote and there was widespread concern about the new hedonism of their younger “flapper” sisters.</p> <p>There was also a new market for novels, such as Radcylffe Hall’s <a href="https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/roadshow/stories/articles/2019/4/1/radclyffe-hall-well-of-loneliness-legacy#:%7E:text=On%20November%2016%2C%201928%2C%20Biron,its%20immediate%20removal%20from%20circulation.">banned book</a> <a href="https://www.bbc.com/culture/article/20221121-the-well-of-loneliness-the-most-corrosive-book-ever">The Well of Loneliness</a> (1928) that focused on, rather than merely hinted at, queer lives. Daring male university students <a href="https://doi.org/10.1093/tcbh/hwab036">started wearing makeup</a>. One of these was <a href="https://www.vam.ac.uk/articles/cecil-beaton-an-introduction">Cecil Beaton</a>, the future celebrity photographer, who <a href="https://www.digitaltransgenderarchive.net/files/ht24wj66t">delighted in cross-dressing</a> both on stage and off.</p> <p>Beaton became part of a set of high society socialites who were known as the “<a href="https://www.npg.org.uk/whatson/cecil-beaton-bright-young-things/exhibition">bright young things</a>”. They were often socially privileged, many of them were queer and their antics were <a href="https://djtaylorwriter.co.uk/page10.htm">widely followed in the media</a> with a mixture of horror and fascination.</p> <p>The “things” took partying seriously and paid great attention to their outfits. They dressed to transgress. In 1920, high society magazine <a href="https://www.bloomsbury.com/uk/freak-to-chic-9781350172609/">The Sketch reported</a> that what it termed “freak parties” were suddenly in vogue with the younger set.</p> <p>Before the war, <a href="https://www.bloomsbury.com/uk/freak-to-chic-9781350172609/">articles had appeared</a> condemning unusual styles as “freak fashions”, but suddenly “<a href="https://www.bloomsbury.com/uk/freak-to-chic-9781350248083/">freaking</a>” was all the rage.</p> <p>Until this point, menswear had been heavily circumscribed. Black was the default colour for formal occasions and tweed for informal settings. But suddenly there was a circle who were keen to try out new looks, no matter how bizarre – or queer-looking – the results.</p> <h2>Queer parties, queer fashions</h2> <p>These styles were often worn as fancy dress, but they borrowed looks from marginalised queer communities such as feminine-styled queer men, some of whom made a living by selling sexual services.</p> <p>One such man was Quentin Crisp, whose memoir <a href="https://www.penguinrandomhouse.com/books/324730/the-naked-civil-servant-by-quentin-crisp/">The Naked Civil Servant</a> (1968) was dramatised as a <a href="http://www.crisperanto.org/news/NCSusa2007.html">pioneering TV drama</a>.</p> <p>Another source of inspiration was the <a href="https://press.uchicago.edu/ucp/books/book/chicago/S/bo3682948.html">freak show</a>. These displays, horrifying from a 21st century point of view, were a popular element of circuses at the time. They featured such stock characters as the muscled giant and the bearded lady, some of whom <a href="https://www.thehumanmarvels.com/annie-jones-the-esau-woman/">became celebrities</a> in their own right.</p> <p>Masquerade and fancy dress parties had long been a feature of urban social life, but the bright young things innovated in that they impressed less through the expense of their outfits and more through their queer implications.</p> <p>Many such parties were themed, such as a Greek-themed freak party that was hailed as the greatest “Dionysia” of 1929 (Dionysus being the Greek god of sex and pleasure). Androgynous and cross dressing looks were common and men such as Beaton designed their own frocks.</p> <p>In July 1927, <a href="https://www.routledge.com/Her-Husband-was-a-Woman-Womens-Gender-Crossing-in-Modern-British-Popular/Oram/p/book/9780415400077">one magazine declared</a> that an event attended by Beaton’s friend Stephen Tennant dressed as the Queen of Sheba and bisexual actress Tallulah Bankhead dressed as a male tennis star was: “one of the queerest of all the ‘freak’ parties ever given in London”.</p> <h2>The party’s over</h2> <p>The Wall Street crash of 1929 led to a rapid shift in public mood. Economic recession led people to favour sobriety over flamboyance. Money for the parties ran out and media attention faltered.</p> <p>Gender-bending style vanished from the fashionable arena, although it persisted on inner cities streets. Quentin Crisp’s mode of <a href="https://bodleianshop.co.uk/products/british-dandies">queer dandyism</a> was daring for its time, but it only became extraordinary by virtue of his unwillingness to modernise.</p> <p>Seemingly he, and pretty much he alone, continued to wear the queer looks of the interwar period into the television age. He duly <a href="http://www.crisperanto.org/news/AnEnglishmanInNYmovie.html">became a transatlantic celebrity</a> late in life when he became the inspiration for Sting’s song <a href="https://www.sting.com/discography/album/189/Singles">Englishman in New York</a> in 1987.</p> <p>Cecil Beaton, meanwhile, became a leading photographer for Vogue magazine and was commissioned to take official <a href="https://www.rct.uk/cecil-beaton-1904-80">coronation portraits of Elizabeth II</a>. He also designed the fantastic dresses worn by Audrey Hepburn in the film <a href="https://www.tatler.com/article/in-cecil-beatons-show-stopping-designs-for-my-fair-lady-lies-a-story-of-tantrums-and-top-hats">My Fair Lady</a> (1964), inspired by the gowns he and his compatriots had dreamed up for themselves some 40 years earlier.<!-- Below is The Conversation's page counter tag. Please DO NOT REMOVE. --><img style="border: none !important; box-shadow: none !important; margin: 0 !important; max-height: 1px !important; max-width: 1px !important; min-height: 1px !important; min-width: 1px !important; opacity: 0 !important; outline: none !important; padding: 0 !important;" src="https://counter.theconversation.com/content/205893/count.gif?distributor=republish-lightbox-basic" alt="The Conversation" width="1" height="1" /><!-- End of code. If you don't see any code above, please get new code from the Advanced tab after you click the republish button. The page counter does not collect any personal data. More info: https://theconversation.com/republishing-guidelines --></p> <p><em><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/dominic-janes-347508">Dominic Janes</a>, Professor of Modern History, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/keele-university-1012">Keele University</a></em></p> <p><em>Image credits: Getty </em><em>Images </em></p> <p><em>This article is republished from <a href="https://theconversation.com">The Conversation</a> under a Creative Commons license. Read the <a href="https://theconversation.com/how-1920s-high-society-fashion-pushed-gender-boundaries-through-freaking-parties-205893">original article</a>.</em></p>

Beauty & Style

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"I fell for it!": Boys in blue crash gender reveal party

<p>One Sydney couple have taken their friends and family by surprise with their high-stakes gender reveal, where the father-to-be was apparently put under arrest by two police officers. </p> <p>Mina Ibrahim revealed their elaborate prank with a video posted to his TikTok account. Mina’s video begins with footage of the moment of his ‘arrest’, before it cuts to the TikToker at a later date, explaining that “that’s me being arrested at my baby’s gender reveal.” </p> <p>He goes on to share the full video, and a promise that the ending will answer any questions his viewers may have.</p> <p>In the clip, the parents-to-be can be seen talking to two uniformed NSW ‘police officers’, guests all around them, with Mina asking for onlookers to get their phones out. He then pushes one of the officers, telling them to leave, and both grab him before attempting to handcuff him, while his pregnant partner attempts to intervene. </p> <p>As family members rush to assist, one of the officers calls for everyone to calm down, then delivers news that takes them all by surprise - and delight - by telling them, “it’s a baby girl.” </p> <p>“So it was the cops who announced to everyone that I was having a baby girl,” present-day Mina informed his audience, before noting that there was a fake balloon inside to throw their guests off the surprise scent. </p> <div class="mol-embed" style="font-size: 16px; margin: 0px 0px 8px; padding: 0px; min-height: 1px; letter-spacing: -0.16px; text-align: center; font-family: graphik, Arial, sans-serif; background-color: #ffffff;"> <blockquote id="v34606683345148116" class="tiktok-embed" style="margin: 18px auto; padding: 0px; min-height: 1px; letter-spacing: -0.01em; position: relative; width: 605px; box-sizing: border-box; line-height: 1.15; overflow: hidden; text-size-adjust: 100%; font-family: proxima-regular, PingFangSC, sans-serif; max-width: 605px; min-width: 325px;" cite="https://www.tiktok.com/@mina.ibs/video/7232964823296773383" data-video-id="7232964823296773383" data-embed-from="oembed"><p><iframe style="letter-spacing: -0.01em; border-width: initial; border-style: none; width: 605px; height: 735px; display: block; visibility: unset; max-height: 735px;" src="https://www.tiktok.com/embed/v2/7232964823296773383?lang=en-GB&amp;referrer=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.dailymail.co.uk%2Fnews%2Farticle-12082153%2FGender-reveal-party-prank-sees-cops-arrest-father-be.html&amp;embedFrom=oembed" name="__tt_embed__v34606683345148116" sandbox="allow-popups allow-popups-to-escape-sandbox allow-scripts allow-top-navigation allow-same-origin"></iframe></p></blockquote> </div> <p>The prank attracted thousands of views online, with many flocking to his comments section to share their congratulations with the parents-to-be. </p> <p>Others, while thrilled for them and their happy news, were open about their concern, having fallen for the trick right along with the couple’s loved ones. </p> <p>“I fell for it and I was worried for your wife!!!,” one confessed. “I was freaking out hahahah you got me”.</p> <p>“I was worried too haha … you scared me,” another said. </p> <p>“Omygosh! I was ready to sue them coppas with you!” came one response, “but congratsss! What a way to reveal!”</p> <p>One other simply wanted to know if the entire situation was even allowed, believing that impersonating the police may not be. </p> <p>And another had simply been suspicious from the very start, noting “Broooo the whole time I was like … something ain’t right! He’s not carrying his gun”.</p> <p><em>Images: TikTok</em></p>

Family & Pets

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5 books for kids and teens that positively portray trans and gender-diverse lives

<p><a href="https://www.stonewall.org.uk/about-us/blog/trans-day-visibility-global-perspective">International Transgender Day of Visibility</a> is an opportunity to celebrate trans and gender-diverse people – and to raise awareness of the ongoing discrimination they experience.</p> <p>Trans and gender-diverse people <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7826417/">experience</a> higher levels of depression, anxiety, self-harm and suicidal behaviours than the general population. </p> <p>Recent events in <a href="https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2023/mar/25/whats-behind-the-terrifying-backlash-against-australias-queer-community">Australia</a>, <a href="https://time.com/6250646/united-kingdom-scotland-transgender-bill/">the United Kingdom</a> and <a href="https://www.vice.com/en/article/5d378d/anti-trans-bills-2023">the US</a> remind us of the need to promote acceptance of trans and gender-diverse young people, and to support their mental health and wellbeing.</p> <p>Community, school and family <a href="https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40894-019-00118-w">are vital</a> tools for this. </p> <p>So are books that positively represent trans and gender-diverse experiences, themes and issues. Such books can expand young people’s awareness, understanding and acceptance of gender differences from an early age. They also validate the lived experience of trans and gender-diverse youth.</p> <p>The five books below all positively portray trans and gender-diverse lives in age-appropriate ways.</p> <h2>1. My Shadow is Purple by Scott Stuart (ages 4-9)</h2> <p>This picture book, <a href="https://larrikinhouse.com.au/products/my-shadow-is-purple">My Shadow Is Purple</a>, considers gender diversity through the use of colour. The story focuses on a boy whose shadow is purple: presumably a blend of masculine blue and feminine pink.</p> <p>Early in the story, the boy celebrates his gender hybridity, enjoying a range of both traditionally masculine and feminine activities. Stuart also explores the way society regulates and limits gender expression, and how this can have negative effects on individuals.</p> <p>That said, the picture book is positive and offers a promising message to readers. Through both resistance and collective support, we can acknowledge and celebrate the spectrum of colours our shadows might take.</p> <h2>2. Too Bright to See by Kyle Lukoff (ages 10-12)</h2> <p>In his <a href="http://www.kylelukoff.com/my-books/tbts">award-winning</a> junior novel, <a href="https://www.penguin.com.au/books/too-bright-to-see-9780593111178">Too Bright to See</a>, Kyle Lukoff uses the ghost story to explore <a href="https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/gender-dysphoria/">gender dysphoria</a> and grief. </p> <p>Trans boy Bug, aged 11, lives in a house with relatively benign spirits. However, during the summer before school starts, Bug’s uncle dies and a new ghost takes up residence in the house.</p> <p>It is not only the grief of his uncle’s death that Bug must learn to live with. His best friend, Moira, is eager to give him a feminine makeover and the new ghostly resident seems intent on sending him a message.</p> <p>Bug’s investigation of the ghost and his journey of self-discovery and self-acceptance is sensitive and nuanced, allowing readers to learn about transgender issues (and grief) alongside Bug.</p> <h2>3. Euphoria Kids by Alison Evans (ages 12+)</h2> <p><a href="https://www.echopublishing.com.au/books/euphoria-kids">Euphoria Kids</a> is an urban fantasy young adult novel that centres on three trans and gender-diverse teenagers: Iris, who grew from a seed; Babs, the daughter of a local witch; and the boy, named so because his current name does not fit him.</p> <p>The world Evans creates is one of strange magic, free from the trauma and gender dysphoria often associated with representations of transgenderism <a href="https://theconversation.com/friday-essay-transgenderism-in-film-and-literature-71809">in literature and film</a>. The characters’ quest to break a curse enables them to demonstrate their resilience, develop their confidence and experience euphoria.</p> <p>Evans explains (in the author note) their decision to create a positive narrative for trans youth, "I want people to know about gender euphoria. I want them to learn about it before gender dysphoria. I want young trans kids that will read this book to be proud of who they are, and imagine wonderful magic lives for themselves."</p> <h2>4. Meet Cute Diary by Emery Lee (ages 14+)</h2> <p><a href="https://www.harpercollins.com.au/9780063038837/meet-cute-diary/">Meet Cute Diary</a>, a heartfelt young adult romantic comedy, explores gender identity and sexuality – and recognises self-discovery entails continuous questioning, rather than a linear progression.</p> <p>Noah Ramirez, a Japanese, white, Afro-Caribbean 16-year-old trans boy, loves the idea of falling in love. He writes fictional trans love stories for his blog, “Meet Cute Diary”. Noah is confronted in real life by Drew, a white cisgender boy who Noah has featured on his blog. After Noah explains his actions, Drew agrees to pretend to date him, in order to validate his stories. Their pretending quickly becomes real.</p> <p>Things become complicated, though, when Noah finds himself attracted to his nonbinary and asexual coworker, Devin. The narrative explores the changing nature of relationships and love.</p> <p>Lee creates interesting characters and complex relationships that respect gender fluidity and recognise the blurry boundary between the platonic and romantic.</p> <h2>5. Felix Ever After by Kacen Callender (ages 14+)</h2> <p>Felix, the 17-year-old protagonist of <a href="https://www.harpercollins.com/products/felix-ever-after-kacen-callender?variant=32280909578274">Felix Ever After</a>, is Black, queer and trans. The marginalisation and transphobia he experiences are exacerbated when pre-transition images of him are prominently displayed at his school. Felix’s search for revenge sees him open up more about himself to others. And he forms new relationships, including with his friend, Ezra Patel.</p> <p>Similar to Lee’s depiction of self-discovery in Meet Cute Diary, Callender suggests that learning about yourself and your identity is an ongoing process. Felix continues to make new discoveries about himself, including the realisation that he is not a boy but a <a href="https://queerintheworld.com/what-does-demiboy-mean/">demiboy</a>.</p> <p>Callender’s writing is engaging, and the cast of diverse characters that populate the narrative reflects the variation in our communities. This tender trans young adult romance sensitively explores the complexity of friendship, forgiveness and self-discovery.</p> <p><em>Image credits: Getty Images</em></p> <p><em>This article originally appeared on <a href="https://theconversation.com/5-books-for-kids-and-teens-that-positively-portray-trans-and-gender-diverse-lives-202832" target="_blank" rel="noopener">The Conversation</a>. </em></p>

Books

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Kate Langbroek reveals real reason she parted ways with Hughesy

<p>Kate Langbroek has caused a stir during an appearance on <em>The Project</em>, revealing the truth about why she and Hughesy went their separate ways, with a hefty pay gap hanging between them. </p> <p>The 57-year-old TV presenter was there to discuss gender pay gaps with her fellow panellists when she decided the time had come to share her own experience, admitting that she had earned a staggering 40% less than her co-host David Hughes on their shared radio show. </p> <p>“It’s unusual because in showbiz it’s not a standard situation, but Hughesy and I did a radio show together for 18 years,” she began, referencing their 2001-2019 <em>Hughesy &amp; Kate</em> show. </p> <p>“[We] had never, ever discussed what we got paid,” she explained. “And then the second last job we did together, it turned out he was getting paid 40% more than I was.” </p> <p>Kate went on to note that in show business, if someone has a higher profile they’re likely to be getting more, but that crucially “this was the <em>Hughesy &amp; Kate</em> show that we had made together. </p> <p>“Like, it didn’t exist without Hughesy and Kate.”</p> <p>She spoke next of how the discovery had changed their relationship, and how she had then left him. </p> <p>“So then the show ended?” co-panellist Waleed Aly sought to confirm. </p> <p>“It’s a really hard thing to do,” Kate said, “who’s going to talk about money?</p> <p>“It’s just not the Australian way. And yet it’s true that women - because we are the ‘breeders’ … we do that, and we take time out of our [careers].” </p> <p>Sarah Harris, another of the show’s panellists, spoke up then to expand on that, explaining how “often we are drawn to part-time and casual work because we want to make it work with our families.” </p> <p>She then shared how she’d been doing her taxes the previous night, and how the “deductions for what helped you with your job” brought her thoughts to childcare, and how she “would have loved to [have] put childcare down” but couldn’t, as “you can’t claim it on tax”. </p> <p>“Until we get those sorts of things worked out,” she said, “I don’t think we’re going to get that close in pay.” </p> <p>Kate took over again from there, sharing how she believed it was about “much more than just equal pay”, and how she “thought it was illegal to pay someone differently depending on whether they’re male or female. It’s just so nuanced.”</p> <p>“I think what people don’t understand with the gender pay gap,” Waleed contributed, “is [that] they think it’s people being paid unequally for the same work. And that is part of it, but it’s actually a relatively small part of it, a lot of it has to do with career progression for women being halted because they have babies, things like that.”</p> <p>Kate, agreeing, chimed in again with a final note to say that “because we’re lovers and nurturers … we’re like, kind of punished for that, at the other end of our working lives as well.” </p> <p><em>Images: The Project / Ten </em></p>

Money & Banking

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Trans people aren’t new, and neither is their oppression: a history of gender crossing in 19th-century Australia

<p><strong><em>This article contains references to anti-trans, colonial and institutional violence, and includes information about an Aboriginal person who died in the early 20th century.</em></strong></p> <p>Anti-transgender hatred is on the rise. Driven by pseudoscience and backed by <a href="https://www.crikey.com.au/2023/03/10/anti-trans-disinformation-australia-transphobia/">well-funded far-right pressure groups</a>, part of the premise of the anti-trans “gender critical” movement is that trans people are new and unnatural. History shows us this is not the case.</p> <p>The “trans” prefix emerged in 1910 with Magnus Hirschfeld’s research on “<a href="https://www.transgendermap.com/politics/sexology/magnus-hirschfeld/">transvestism</a>” (initially a medical term). Hirschfeld was a gay German Jewish doctor whose research centre, the <a href="https://magnus-hirschfeld.de/ausstellungen/institute/">Institut für Sexualwissenschaft</a>, has been called the world’s first trans clinic. The institute was destroyed by Nazis in 1933. You might be familiar with this image of Nazi book-burning – the books in question were Hirschfeld’s research.</p> <p>In the 1800s, people who crossed gender categories were not understood to be “transvestites” or transgender, but were referred to as “masqueraders”, “impersonators”, “men-women” and “freaks”. As such, I consider my research to be a work of shared queer and trans history, but not necessarily a history of trans people. I am not interested in how people in the past might have identified today, but in how they lived and how their communities responded to them.</p> <h2>Gender variance in First Nations communities</h2> <p>Far from being new, gender variance on this continent predates Europeans’ arrival in Australia. </p> <p>Several Aboriginal nations have traditions of <a href="https://www.transhub.org.au/trans-mob">culturally specific gender categories</a>. In 2015 the organisation Sisters and Brothers NT noted the terms “Kwarte Kwarte” in Arrernte, “Kungka Kungka” in Pitjantjatjara and Luritja, “Yimpininni” in Tiwi, and “Karnta Pia” in Warlpiri, which can be interpreted as “like a girl”, while “Kungka Wati” in Pintipi and “Girriji Kati” in Waramungu literally mean “woman/man”. </p> <p>Sandy O’Sullivan, a Wiradjuri trans scholar and professor, notes that the imposition of European gender norms on First Nations peoples was part of a broader colonial project that sought to eliminate Indigenous cultures and kinship systems.</p> <h2>Gender transgression in colonial Australia</h2> <p>In colonial Australia, gender transgression was structurally managed via carceral systems such as lunatic asylums, police and prisons. </p> <p>Although there was no formal legislation against cross-dressing or gender-crossing, people were often charged with vagrancy, fraud, sodomy, impersonation or indecent behaviour. A lot of Australian legislation was inherited from or influenced by British legislation, including the 1533 Buggery Act and the 1885 Criminal Law Amendment Act, also known as “An Act to make further provision for the Protection of Women and Girls”, which strengthened existing legislation against homosexuality and sex work.</p> <p>In the 19th century there was no formal or medical process for gender transition. When people crossed gender categories, they did so socially, sometimes for their entire lifetimes.</p> <p>On a local level, gender crossers were frequently accepted in their communities if they met certain conditions. People were more likely to be accepted if they were white, transmasculine, and contributing to the productive workforce. People who were socially marginalised or lacking in support from family and friends were more likely to have hostile interactions with the law and with medicine.</p> <h2>Madness, medicalisation, and criminalisation</h2> <p>Gender transgression over years or decades was often interpreted as evidence of insanity. There were cases such as Tom Hurly, institutionalised in Parramatta Lunatic Asylum in 1861, and Edward de Lacy Evans, institutionalised in Bendigo Hospital and Kew Asylum in 1879. Edward Moate – referred to in the press as “another De Lacy Evans” – was institutionalised in Beechworth Asylum in 1884. </p> <p>The lunatic asylum was a structure that maintained and restored the colonial order. To be discharged and re-enter the community, patients had to demonstrate that their insanity had been “cured”, which for gender transgressors generally meant being forced to detransition. </p> <p>Edward de Lacy Evans was made to return to dressing as a woman and was discharged only a few months after his admission. Edward Moate, on the other hand, refused to provide a female name or reassume a female gender expression, and died in the asylum three years later, still under the name Edward Moate.</p> <p>Vagrancy charges were the most common way of criminalising gender crossing. This was frequently applied to people who lived as women, who were more likely to be seen as dangerously deviant than tolerably eccentric. In 1863, Ellen Maguire was charged with vagrancy in Melbourne for “personating a woman”. Officially, the vagrancy charge was one of “having no visible means of support”, despite most of the court trial focusing on her employment as a sex worker and her supposed deception of her male clients. She was eventually convicted of sodomy and died in prison after six years.</p> <p>Sometimes the twin modes of medicalisation and criminalisation were applied simultaneously. In 1896, the Warengesda Aborigines’ Mission reported an Aboriginal (probably Wiradjuri) youth named H Paroo for “masquerading in the garb of a man”. </p> <p>Paroo was ordered to leave the station, but refused to comply. The station wrote a letter to the Aborigines’ Protection Board asking if Paroo could be removed, either by being “given in charge as a vagrant” or “as not fit to be at large” (that is, as a “wandering lunatic”).</p> <h2>Full and authentic lives</h2> <p>Not everyone who was exposed in the press was vilified or incarcerated as a result. Some people lived full lives in their chosen gender categories, and were only outed after their deaths. </p> <p>In 1893, a farmer named Jack Jorgensen died in Elmore, near Bendigo, and was promptly exposed in the press as yet “another De Lacy Evans”. Jorgensen had suffered an injury at work but refused to go to Bendigo Hospital. He signed his will as Johann Martin Jorgensen, and died at home under the care of his housemates, who knew about his gender but kept the secret until after his death.</p> <p>These stories are important because they show that the criminalisation and pathologisation of gender transgression is not a new phenomenon. Medicine and the justice system have a long history of being weaponised against trans people and anyone trespassing from the gendered status quo. </p> <p>If we are to work towards trans liberation in the present, we must reckon with these histories and address their structural legacies.</p> <p><em>Image credits: Getty Images</em></p> <p><em>This article originally appeared on <a href="https://theconversation.com/trans-people-arent-new-and-neither-is-their-oppression-a-history-of-gender-crossing-in-19th-century-australia-201663" target="_blank" rel="noopener">The Conversation</a>. </em></p>

Caring

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Outrage at couple’s explosive gender reveal

<p>Love them or hate them, gender reveals seem primed to stay. While some couples prefer to keep their unborn baby’s gender a surprise for loved ones, others are keen to share the news with the world. And in the age of the internet, many parents-to-be are committed to having the biggest event yet. </p> <p>One couple has gone viral on TikTok for their reveal, but it hasn’t been the positive affair they’d hoped for, with many slamming them for putting lives in danger with their stunt. </p> <p>In the clip, the excited pair are standing at sunset with their two daughters in front of a massive sign that lights up to read “oh baby”. Pink and blue balloons surround them all, while Bruno Mars’ ‘Locked Out of Heaven’ plays over the video. </p> <p>Mere seconds in, the sign erupts with fireworks, pink smoke, and confetti. The couple seem thrilled to have learned they’re expecting another girl, jumping around and cheering with their two young children.</p> <div class="embed" style="box-sizing: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-size: 16px; vertical-align: baseline; outline: none !important;"><iframe class="embedly-embed" style="box-sizing: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border-width: 0px; border-style: initial; vertical-align: baseline; width: 620px; max-width: 100%; outline: none !important;" title="tiktok embed" src="https://cdn.embedly.com/widgets/media.html?src=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.tiktok.com%2Fembed%2Fv2%2F7173812850702454022&amp;display_name=tiktok&amp;url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.tiktok.com%2F%40blancarore33%2Fvideo%2F7173812850702454022&amp;image=https%3A%2F%2Fp16-sign-va.tiktokcdn.com%2Fobj%2Ftos-maliva-p-0068%2Fedbf7bee036c450da31af699ae689a51_1670283471%3Fx-expires%3D1676019600%26x-signature%3DSjekZvCX9KbuH3KAM5P3ipVDuWs%253D&amp;key=59e3ae3acaa649a5a98672932445e203&amp;type=text%2Fhtml&amp;schema=tiktok" width="340" height="700" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" allowfullscreen="allowfullscreen"></iframe></div> <p>Despite their elation, viewers did not share in their cause for celebration, instead noting the blatant danger of their outrageous display.</p> <p>“This could have gone wrong on so many levels,” commented one viewer. </p> <p>“Could have gone so wrong and regret forever,” agreed another.</p> <p>“Forest fire core,” wrote one, referencing the more recent internet trend of adopting specific style aesthetics and declaring them ‘something-core’. </p> <p>“Right underneath the very nonflammable eucalyptus trees,” someone else noted. </p> <p>However, despite the very real risk, some simply enjoyed the spectacle. And in what was a cause for concern for many, a large number of viewers declared their desire to have a reveal just like it.</p> <p>“If it takes all my life earnings to make my gender reveal like this,” one said, “then I will spend it in an instant.”</p> <p>“This just motivated me to work harder in life cus this needs to be me,” came one response, among a sea of related comments about the cost of such an event. </p> <p>Concerns over the couple’s stunt stem from a series of unfortunate results over the years, most notably from a similar incident in 2020, when a gender reveal in California was responsible for a bushfire that claimed 10,000 acres of land. In 2018, another couple’s reveal was the spark behind a 47,000-acre bushfire.</p> <p>The bad news cycle surrounding such these events has even led to the woman credited with inventing the concept - blogger Jenna Karvunidis - to apologise for it. </p> <p><em>Images: TikTok</em></p>

Family & Pets

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Jacinda Ardern’s resignation: gender and the toll of strong, compassionate leadership

<p>“Uneasy is the head that wears the crown”, wrote Shakespeare, way back in the 1500s. It’s not a new idea that top-level leadership jobs are intensely <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1048984316300923">stressful</a> and pose a heavy toll. Extended periods of stress are known to put people at <a href="https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev.psych.52.1.397">risk of burnout</a>.</p> <p>Yet probably few of us can ever grasp just how unrelentingly demanding and difficult leading a country actually is. Especially in times of crisis and with our modern media and online environment, every statement and every move a leader makes is subject to extensive scrutiny and commentary. </p> <p>Increasingly, a troubling feature of the commentary about New Zealand Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern has been its abusive, violent, sexist and misogynistic tenor.</p> <p>While she has not focused on this as a reason for her decision to <a href="https://theconversation.com/arderns-resignation-as-new-zealand-prime-minister-is-a-game-changer-for-the-2023-election-198149">resign yesterday</a>, being targeted in this way, and knowing <a href="https://www.newshub.co.nz/home/entertainment/2022/03/where-is-clarke-gayford-jacinda-ardern-laughs-off-conspiracy-theories-reveals-the-answer.html">her partner</a> and even <a href="https://www.rnz.co.nz/news/political/482761/the-hatred-and-vitriol-jacinda-ardern-endured-would-affect-anybody">her child</a> were also targeted, must surely have made an already difficult job so much more challenging.</p> <h2>Crises, kindness and courageous decisions</h2> <p>Crises have long been understood as the most intensive tests of a <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1048984322000649">leader’s skill and character</a>. They involve making weighty decisions, at times about matters that quite literally have life and death implications. Decisions have to be made at speed, but often with insufficient information to confidently predict the consequences of the choices made.</p> <p>Ardern’s premiership has thrown crisis after crisis her way. And time and time again, she has displayed a strength of character and <a href="https://www.taylorfrancis.com/chapters/edit/10.4324/9781003099109-10/leading-crisis-adaptive-leadership-jacinda-ardern-deidre-le-fevre">considerable leadership skills</a> in responding to them. </p> <p>Her handling of the Christchurch terror attacks won <a href="https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2019/03/18/new-zealands-prime-minister-wins-worldwide-praise-her-response-mosque-shootings/">global admiration</a> for her composure, compassion and decisive resolve to ensure such heinous acts could not be repeated here.</p> <p>Her response to the <a href="https://www.nzherald.co.nz/nz/white-island-eruption-how-good-is-ardern-world-praises-pm-for-disaster-response/4S5BZ6NCOWXN4R63HDIEV4KXVM/">Whakaari White Island eruption</a> garnered similar praise, showing yet again her intuitive grasp that a leader offering support to those caught up in such a distressing event actually makes a difference. That Ardern has sought to combine compassion and kindness with the courage to make tough decisions is a key feature of <a href="https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/978-1-80262-157-020221003/full/html">her style</a>.</p> <h2>Unrealistic expectations of a leader</h2> <p>Throughout the pandemic, Arden has repeatedly proved her willingness to make courageous decisions. Combined with her prowess at <a href="https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/1742715020929151">mobilising the public’s understanding</a> and support for the government’s COVID response, this was critical to the success of the elimination strategy. Many <a href="https://www.sciencemediacentre.co.nz/2022/03/21/two-years-since-nz-first-locked-down-expert-reaction/">lives and livelihoods have been saved</a> due to her leadership.</p> <p>When Delta and then Omicron emerged, Ardern <a href="https://theconversation.com/why-jacinda-arderns-clumsy-leadership-response-to-delta-could-still-be-the-right-approach-169926">sought to continually adapt</a> the government’s policies to a changing context. While tenacity and resilience may number among her many strengths, dogmatism is not one of her weaknesses. </p> <p>Of course not all decisions <a href="https://www.stuff.co.nz/national/health/coronavirus/300763211/ombudsmans-criticism-of-miq-virtual-lobby-doesnt-go-far-enough">proved to be optimal</a> – expecting them to be so would be wildly unrealistic. Some of her decisions have sparked a <a href="https://thespinoff.co.nz/summer-2022/04-01-2023/the-day-the-grounds-of-parliament-burned-2">strong negative response</a>. But it’s <a href="https://www.amazon.com/Thinking-Differently-About-Leadership-Critical/dp/1784716782">foolish to expect perfection from leaders</a>, and the job unavoidably means making tough calls not everyone will agree with.</p> <h2>Rise in sexist and mysogynistic abuse</h2> <p>No leader is omnipotent, especially in a democracy and in a globally interconnected world. </p> <p>The latest crisis Ardern has been grappling with – the cost of living – is in large measure <a href="https://edition.cnn.com/2022/09/21/economy/central-banks-inflation-global/index.html">driven by global forces</a> far beyond the control of any New Zealand prime minister. New Zealand’s situation is <a href="https://www.stuff.co.nz/business/129353834/think-inflation-is-biting-spare-a-thought-for-turkey">better than many other countries</a>, but unfortunately for Ardern this holds little sway for some people. </p> <p>The reality, then, is that her growing unpopularity has in part been rooted in people having unrealistic expectations of what leaders can and can’t actually do, and needing someone to blame. But there’s also no getting away from the fact that far too much of the criticism directed at her has been coloured by sexist and misogynistic attitudes. </p> <p>There’s a continuum in how this is expressed. It starts with one C word – <a href="https://www.stuff.co.nz/national/politics/opinion/122658284/shes-not-a-doll-so-dont-call-the-prime-minister-cindy">Cindy</a> – which is a sexist attempt to belittle her authority and status as an adult woman who is the elected leader of our country. </p> <p>It ends with the other C word. Research by the <a href="https://thedisinfoproject.org/2022/11/29/dangerous-speech-misogyny-and-democracy/">Disinformation Project</a> shows its usage is enmeshed within a wider discourse that denigrates other aspects of her identity as a woman and extends to <a href="https://twitter.com/justinsight/status/1616144565433663488">fantasising about her rape and death</a>.</p> <p>This kind of behaviour is simply inexcusable. It should be to New Zealand’s eternal shame that Ardern has been subjected to this. It cannot be justified by arguing her policies have been controversial and she “deserves” this abuse: that line of reasoning simply replicates the defence long used by rapists and domestic abusers.</p> <p>Ardern is New Zealand’s third woman prime minister. The <a href="https://www.ceeol.com/search/article-detail?id=277628">glass ceiling</a> for that role is well and truly broken. We now also have <a href="https://www.rnz.co.nz/news/political/477290/women-will-have-equal-share-of-seats-in-parliament-with-soraya-peke-mason-s-swearing-in">equal representation of women</a> within parliament. But the sexist and misogynistic nature of so much of the criticism and abuse directed at Ardern also shows we are a very long way from having equal treatment of women in leadership.</p> <p><em>Image credits: Getty Images</em></p> <p><em>This article originally appeared on <a href="https://theconversation.com/jacinda-arderns-resignation-gender-and-the-toll-of-strong-compassionate-leadership-198152" target="_blank" rel="noopener">The Conversation</a>. </em></p>

Retirement Life

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Gender pension gap: why women save less - and why that’s changing dramatically

<p>One issue <a href="https://www.scottishwidows.co.uk/knowledge-centre/gender-pension-gap/">that has</a> attracted <a href="https://prospect.org.uk/article/what-is-the-gender-pension-gap/#:%7E:text=The%20gender%20pension%20gap%20is,gap%20that%20year%20(17.3%25).">growing attention</a> in <a href="https://www.aviva.co.uk/aviva-edit/your-money-articles/women-know-gender-pension-gap/">recent years</a> is the “gender pension gap” – the fact that on average, women have lower private pension wealth and lower income in retirement than men. But before rushing to conclusions about how to “fix” this, it is crucial to understand what lies behind any pension differences between men and women. </p> <p>There are three main potential drivers behind this phenomenon:</p> <ol> <li> <p>Different labour market experiences: the “<a href="https://www.ifs.org.uk/publications/10358">gender pay gap</a>”, and the fact that <a href="https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php?title=Duration_of_working_life_-_statistics#:%7E:text=In%202019%2C%20the%20estimated%20expected,aged%2015%20years%20and%20more">men have</a> longer paid working lives than women;</p> </li> <li> <p>Different investment strategies: when it comes to <a href="https://www.gov.uk/pension-types">defined contribution pensions</a>, <a href="https://s-h-w.com/news-articles">men choose</a> to invest in portfolios with a higher expected rate of return.</p> </li> <li> <p>Different saving rates: as <a href="https://www.ifs.org.uk/publications/15425">we investigate</a> below, men and women may also differ in how likely they are to be offered a pension in their job, or tend to work for employers that contribute more or less to a pension, or tend to make different contributions themselves.</p> </li> </ol> <p>Importantly, the role of these potential drivers will have changed over time for various reasons. Mothers <a href="https://www.ons.gov.uk/employmentandlabourmarket/peopleinwork/employmentandemployeetypes/articles/familiesandthelabourmarketengland/2019#:%7E:text=In%20April%20to%20June%202019%2C%20three%20in%20four%20mothers%20with,mothers%20in%20employment%20in%202000.">have increasingly participated</a> in the labour market over the years, for example. Final salary pensions have been reformed to career average schemes, which in particular reduced the generosity for long stayers and those with stronger pay growth, <a href="https://www.pensionspolicyinstitute.org.uk/sponsor-research/research-reports/2013/17-05-2013-the-implications-of-the-coalition-governments-public-service-pension-reforms/">affecting men</a> more than women. Also, <a href="https://www.pensionsadvisoryservice.org.uk/about-pensions/pensions-basics/automatic-enrolment">automatic enrolment</a> has been introduced for workplace pensions, which affected everyone’s participation in them. </p> <p>Gaps in pension income today may therefore reflect labour markets and pension arrangements from many years ago, and the gap in pension income for current working-age individuals may be quite different when they reach retirement. In an ongoing programme of work at the Institute for Fiscal Studies, funded by the <a href="https://www.nuffieldfoundation.org/">Nuffield Foundation</a>, we are examining in detail differences in pension saving rates between men and women that will contribute to a future “gender pension gap” for today’s working age individuals. </p> <h2>Making sense of the gap</h2> <p>In a <a href="https://www.ifs.org.uk/publications/15421">first publication</a>, we have documented differences in average pension saving between male and female employees before the introduction of <a href="https://www.pensionsadvisoryservice.org.uk/about-pensions/pensions-basics/automatic-enrolment">automatic enrolment</a> in 2012. We found that on average across all employees (whether saving in a pension or not), women of all ages actually contributed more as a proportion of their earnings each year than men. </p> <p>However, this was driven by the fact that women were more likely to work in the public sector, where contribution rates are typically higher. Examining average pension saving among men and women within each sector reveals a different pattern. The average saving rates of male and female employees were similar until around age 35 but then diverged, with average contributions continuing to increase with age for men but not changing for women. </p> <p>The graphs below unpick what was driving this pattern among private-sector employees in Great Britain (though the pattern was broadly similar for public-sector employees). It was caused by the extent to which men and women participated in a pension. </p> <p>The proportion of men and women saving anything in a private pension was similar until around age 30 but then diverged, with men increasingly likely to be saving in a pension as they get older, while women’s pension participation plateaued. On the other hand, average contribution rates for those saving in a pension were actually slightly higher as a share of earnings among women than men. </p> <p><strong>Pension participation in overall savings</strong></p> <p><img src="https://oversixtydev.blob.core.windows.net/media/2022/10/graph-1.jpg" alt="" width="1280" height="720" /></p> <p><strong>Average contribution rates in pension savings</strong></p> <p><img src="https://oversixtydev.blob.core.windows.net/media/2022/10/graph-2.jpg" alt="" width="1280" height="720" /></p> <p>What might have been driving differences in pension participation? The timing of the divergence in people’s lives mirrored the evolution of the gender gaps <a href="https://www.ons.gov.uk/employmentandlabourmarket/peopleinwork/earningsandworkinghours/bulletins/genderpaygapintheuk/2020">in pay</a>, <a href="https://www.ifs.org.uk/publications/13673">commuting</a> and <a href="https://www.ifs.org.uk/publications/14032">firm productivity</a>, and suggested that the arrival of children and related employment decisions was an important factor. </p> <p>So in our ongoing programme of research we are examining whether the gap in pension participation is associated with the arrival of children, and the extent to which female employees received a different pension offer from their employer, or made different saving decisions when presented with the same offer as male employees. </p> <h2>Effect of automatic enrolment</h2> <p>The introduction of automatic enrolment into workplace pensions has substantially changed pension-saving behaviour – in particular, substantially increasing pension participation among employees targeted by the policy. The graph below shows the proportion of male and female employees of different ages who were saving in a private workplace pension in 2012 and 2019 in Great Britain. </p> <p>The pattern in 2012 is represented by the two sets of dashed lines, with men again in blue and women in purple. It is similar to that estimated in the first graph in this article. </p> <p>But the pattern in 2019 is totally different. Rather than participation diverging at a particular age, women are now slightly less likely to be in a pension at all ages than men (but the level of participation among both is considerably higher). Automatic enrolment will therefore have fundamentally changed the nature of the gender gap in pension-saving rates going forwards. </p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Pension participation 2019 vs 2012</strong></p> <p><img src="https://oversixtydev.blob.core.windows.net/media/2022/10/graph-3.jpg" alt="" width="1280" height="720" /></p> <p>This highlights the importance of examining gender differences in saving rates, rather than just accrued pension wealth or pension income. Focusing on the latter risks developing policies to fix a perceived problem that has already changed.</p> <p><em>Image credits: Getty Images</em></p> <p><em>This article originally appeared on <a href="https://theconversation.com/gender-pension-gap-why-women-save-less-and-why-thats-changing-dramatically-160648" target="_blank" rel="noopener">The Conversation</a>.</em></p>

Retirement Income

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"This is crazy": Ben Fordham blasts gender-neutral terms at all-boys school

<p>Ben Fordham has called out an all-boys private school that have encouraged teachers and students to use gender-inclusive terms. </p> <p>The principal of St Bede's College in Melbourne said in a letter to staff this week that the school was looking to change the language it uses following updated Victoria Child Safe Standards. </p> <p>The letter discouraged school staff from using terms such as "boy" and "young man" in an attempt to be more inclusive to non-binary students. </p> <p>"Can I ask that we start to use gender neutral language in our communications where possible?" the letter read, reports <a href="https://www.heraldsun.com.au/victoria-education/st-bedes-push-for-more-inclusive-language/news-story/a1709b55ccdf81b2fdde3111a2942b08" target="_blank" rel="nofollow noreferrer noopener">The Herald Sun</a>.</p> <p>"I know it can be challenging when communicating with the parents of senior students and calling them 'children', so if anyone has a better gender neutral term than this, please let me know."</p> <p>"The use of the term 'student' rather than 'young man' or 'boy' can easily be made. I'm yet to find an alternative for 'Beda Boy' (graduated students), and given the history of this term, we would need to think carefully on any changes here."</p> <p>After the letter was made public, 2GB's Ben Fordham blasted the school policy saying it was political correctness gone too far. </p> <p>"This is crazy. Cancel culture has hit this all boys school in Melbourne," he said.</p> <p>The college confirmed "staff were asked to use gender neutral language where possible" to comply with new standards to ensure all students were included. </p> <p>"There are, and will continue to be, boys, young men and 'Beda Boys' within our College community," a statement from the school read.</p> <p>"At the forefront of our minds is, and will remain, the inclusion of all students at St Bede's College."</p> <p><em>Image credits: Instagram / St Bede's College</em></p>

News

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Unpaid and unequal: women’s extra workload affects mental wellbeing

<p>Women do the bulk of unpaid domestic work globally and the added burden has an impact on their mental health – but surprisingly there’s little independent empirical research about this.</p> <p>Now, there is data, which shows the double burden of paid and unpaid work results in increased depressive or psychological distress for women as unpaid labour increases.</p> <p>Researchers at the University of Melbourne reviewed the evidence for the gendered nature of unpaid work and consequences for mental health among employed adults, <a href="https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lanpub/article/PIIS2468-2667(22)00160-8/fulltext" target="_blank" rel="noreferrer noopener">publishing</a> their results in <em>Lancet Public Health.</em></p> <p>Public health researcher and lead author, Jen Ervin, says the research showed women were uniformly doing more unpaid work across every geographical and time setting.</p> <p>“What our review tells us is that, in addition to the economic penalty women experience carrying out most of the world’s unpaid labour load, there is a troubling mental health cost as well,” she says. </p> <p>While further research is needed, Ervin says the most widely acknowledged explanation for the impact on mental health is that the combined paid and unpaid workload triggers stress-related pathways. It also reduces time for activities known to be protective for mental health such as sleep, leisure and physical activity.</p> <p>The findings won’t come as a surprise to many, especially women, she says.</p> <p>Indeed. The study follows <a href="https://findanexpert.unimelb.edu.au/news/47524-yet-again--the-census-shows-women-are-doing-more-housework.-now-is-the-time-to-invest-in-interventions" target="_blank" rel="noreferrer noopener">census data</a> confirming (once again) that Australian women do more hours of unpaid housework than men. And <a href="https://cew.org.au/2022-cew-census-an-urgent-wakeup-call-ceo-gender-balance-100-years-away/" target="_blank" rel="noreferrer noopener">another report</a> this week commissioned by Chief Executive Women indicating caring responsibilities in the pandemic held back progress on women’s workforce participation and leadership.</p> <p>For what seems like an intractable problem, what can be done to change things?</p> <p>Ervin says, “we believe that policies such as universal childcare and normalising flexible working arrangements and extended paternity leave for men can help in shifting the dial and driving greater gender equality in the division of unpaid labour and unpaid care.</p> <div class="newsletter-box"> <div id="wpcf7-f6-p205326-o1" class="wpcf7" dir="ltr" lang="en-US" role="form"> <form class="wpcf7-form mailchimp-ext-0.5.62 spai-bg-prepared init" action="/health/womens-unpaid-work-and-mental-health/#wpcf7-f6-p205326-o1" method="post" novalidate="novalidate" data-status="init"> <p style="display: none !important;"><span class="wpcf7-form-control-wrap referer-page"><input class="wpcf7-form-control wpcf7-text referer-page" name="referer-page" type="hidden" value="https://cosmosmagazine.com/health/" data-value="https://cosmosmagazine.com/health/" aria-invalid="false" /></span></p> <p><!-- Chimpmail extension by Renzo Johnson --></form> </div> </div> <p>“Some of these measures will also aid and facilitate the harder task of shifting some of the outdated attitudes and beliefs around labour division.”</p> <p>It’s important to note many men are taking a more active role in childcare and housework. But men can be limited in doing so by factors such as inflexible workplace arrangements or social stigma, she says.</p> <p>The University of Melbourne research focussed on employed adults, the ‘double burden’ effect of combining paid work with unpaid work, and how this subsequently creates issues of overload and time poverty. It found substantial gender differences.</p> <p>Of the 14 studies reviewed for the article – totalling more than 66,800 participants worldwide – five examined unpaid labour (inclusive of care), nine examined housework time and, of these, four also examined childcare.</p> <p>Overall, in 11 of the 14 studies, women self-reported increased depressive or psychological distress symptoms with increasing unpaid labour demands. For men, only three out of a possible 12 studies reported any negative association.</p> <p>An aspect not captured in the current review, Ervin says, is the difference in the gendered allocation of household tasks. For example, men often do less-time-sensitive outdoor or maintenance tasks such as mowing the lawn or cleaning the gutters.  These jobs aren’t as time-pressured as feeding a hungry child or driving them to an appointment.</p> <p>And while more difficult to measure, <a href="https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13668803.2021.2002813?journalCode=ccwf20" target="_blank" rel="noreferrer noopener">other research</a> shows women are also often carrying more of the mental load of household labour.</p> <p>Unfortunately, Australia is lagging behind many other countries when it comes to key gender equality indicators such as unpaid labour division, Ervin says.</p> <p>This week a <a href="https://cew.org.au/2022-cew-census-an-urgent-wakeup-call-ceo-gender-balance-100-years-away/" target="_blank" rel="noreferrer noopener">report</a> commissioned by Chief Executive Women drew attention to the lack of progress made by Australia’s top companies in appointing women to leadership roles. The report, prepared by management consultants Bain &amp; Company, says 73% of executive roles in ASX300 companies are held by men, and 85% of line management roles. The report says COVID-19 set back women’s workforce participation, as they took on the bulk of the increased caring responsibilities.</p> <p>This is consistent with <a href="https://findanexpert.unimelb.edu.au/news/47524-yet-again--the-census-shows-women-are-doing-more-housework.-now-is-the-time-to-invest-in-interventions" target="_blank" rel="noreferrer noopener">findings</a> from other University of Melbourne research showing the “catastrophic” impact of the pandemic on women’s lives, especially for mothers. Restrictions such as school closures and remote learning added to the domestic workload for everyone, but the gender gap remained. Women, more often than men, reduced their paid work to meet the increased demands.</p> <p>The Murdoch Children’s Research Institute also <a href="https://cosmosmagazine.com/health/mental-health-maternal-lockdown/" target="_blank" rel="noreferrer noopener">reported</a> maternal wellbeing was profoundly impacted by the pandemic, finding a third of women experienced clinically significant mental health problems during Victoria’s second lockdown, with ongoing fatigue and parenting stress.</p> <p><!-- Start of tracking content syndication. Please do not remove this section as it allows us to keep track of republished articles --></p> <p><img id="cosmos-post-tracker" style="opacity: 0; height: 1px!important; width: 1px!important; border: 0!important; position: absolute!important; z-index: -1!important;" src="https://syndication.cosmosmagazine.com/?id=205326&amp;title=Unpaid+and+unequal%3A+women%26%238217%3Bs+extra+workload+affects+mental+wellbeing" width="1" height="1" /></p> <p><!-- End of tracking content syndication --></p> <div id="contributors"> <p><em><a href="https://cosmosmagazine.com/health/womens-unpaid-work-and-mental-health/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">This article</a> was originally published on <a href="https://cosmosmagazine.com" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Cosmos Magazine</a> and was written by <a href="https://cosmosmagazine.com/contributor/petra-stock" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Petra Stock</a>. Petra Stock has a degree in environmental engineering and a Masters in Journalism from University of Melbourne. She has previously worked as a climate and energy analyst.</em></p> <p><em>Image: Getty Images</em></p> </div>

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